The Fall Technical Meeting gets a virtual overhaul

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The Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) has long been a staple in the mechanical engineering community as it relates to the gear industry. Although the actual conference did not take its name until the ’80s, the concept has been around for more than 100 years. AGMA’s core foundation is built upon the quality and relevance of our standards, and the FTM is the pipeline of innovation that feeds into the overall promise of what we do as an association.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the traditional format of the FTM has been altered to provide a safe and travel-free option — the conference is virtual for this year. Due to the change, the normal format for the event has been altered. Ten papers were chosen by our expert engineers and committee members, and the researchers behind them will record their presentation to distribute to attendees for viewing from October 5–19. Directly following, on October 20, the 10 presenters will conduct a live Q&A session where you can have your pre-submitted questions answered in real time. Although we know that an online event can never replace the handshake you get in an in-person event, there will be networking, and the latest research will be shared.

This year’s presenters are Europeans and Americans who represent both academia and industry. Their presentations cover the latest research on gear-testing methods, case studies with comparisons to existing standards, efficiency calculations, computer modeling, and gear-formula development. 

Because every registrant gets access to every paper and presentation, there are not specific categories or “sessions” planned out. Instead, registrants are free to make their own schedule and watch the pre-recorded presentations at their leisure. This allows for viewers to write down questions, go back and look at something they might have missed, and, most importantly, they are able to choose when it is convenient for them to watch. For example, watching presentations on rating could be broken up by watching presentations on test methods and so forth. What we miss in regards to a live presentation, attendees gain in flexibility and viewing from their own computer. 

The diverse topics covered by the 10 presentations this year span from design to manufacture, include electric vehicles and wind-turbine case studies, and cover thermal rating, high-speed gearing, tribology, and failure analysis. As always, each paper maintains the quality assurance, as the double-blind peer review remained a priority. Each paper will be published in SCOPUS and will be available for purchase separately from the FTM. AGMA recognizes that this year has been challenging for so many in the gearing industry, and that changing the format for the FTM, to keep our attendees safe, was necessary. We look forward to hopefully seeing you all again next year, but in the meantime, we will see you online.

For more information, go to: www.agma.org/2020-fall-technical-meeting.

Fall Technical Meeting abstracts and presenters

October 5-19 (online content available), October 20 (live Q&A and networking)

Aitor Arana
Mechanical and Industrial Production of Mondragon University, Spain

Abstract Title: Quasi-static transmission error behavior under the composite effects of temperature and load

Abstract: Current demands for enhanced rotational speed in geared transmissions affect the thermal behavior of mechanical parts by increasing their steady-state temperature. Lubricating film thickness is reduced, increasing the failure probability, and if temperature levels are sufficiently high, thermal distortion can affect mesh behavior. In this work, a custom back-to-back test rig is used to experimentally analyze the composite effect of temperature and load in terms of backlash, mean level of transmission error and its peak-to-peak value. The experimental results are then compared to analytical predictions.

Author bio: Aitor Arana is a lecturer in the department of Mechanical and Industrial Production of Mondragon University in Spain and a researcher in the Structural Mechanics and Design group of its Faculty of Engineering since 2008. He holds two mechanical engineering degrees from Ecole Centrale de Nantes in France and Mondragon Unibertsitatea in Spain, a master’s of research on applied mechanical sciences, and a Ph.D. thesis in thermo-mechanical behavior of gear transmissions. His main research expertise is in the field of mechanical design, tribology, and analytical modeling of machine element behavior (gears, bearings, spline couplings, ball-screws) regarding performance, durability and/or NVH. He has participated in 17 research projects funded by industry and public administrations, and he has published four journal papers, one patent, and 16 conference contributions.

Andreas Beinstingel
Renk AG, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Abstract Title: Thermal lead correction for high speed gears

Abstract: Temperature distribution in high-speed gears of large dimension and high-power density is much different in operation as compared to manufacturing. Therefore, the influence of non-uniform thermal growth should be accounted for with suitable lead modification, as it is demanded by the latest version of API 613. For many years, RENK has been using empiric methods for thermal lead correction based on measurements and experience. This paper compares a complex finite element calculation to the original method and develops a simplified approach for quick and reliable heat analyses for thermal lead correction of high-speed gears.

Author bio: Andreas Beinstingel is a Computational Engineer for industrial and marine gears with a focus on Structural Dynamics and Acoustics. He has a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from Augsburg University of Applied Sciences and a master’s degree in computational engineering from Munich University of Applied Sciences. He joined the transmission industry at the beginning of 2015 at RENK AG Augsburg as a Software Developer in the field of Structural Mechanics. Since 2018, he is also been working as an external Ph.D. student at the Chair of Vibroacoustics of Vehicles and Machines (VIB) at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The research partnership between RENK AG Augsburg and TUM includes the investigation of profile deviations of involute gear teeth under operating conditions within its mathematical implementation in simulation algorithms.

Yi Guo
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, United States

Abstract Title: Validation of a generalized formulation for load‑sharing behavior in epicyclic gears for wind turbines

Abstract: In an ideal epicyclic gear set, every parallel gear path transmits the same amount of torque. However, it is well known that certain manufacturing variations result in unequal load sharing between the parallel gear paths. Previous works have developed and validated a general closed-form analytical model of this phenomenon. In this paper, the analytical model has been reformulated to include the effects of gravity, carrier bearing clearance, and external applied moments. The model is compared to load measurements collected from two similar wind-turbine gearboxes with three-planet epicyclic gear sets, and also compared to the mesh load factor requirements in the ANSI/AGMA 6006 and IEC 61400-4 wind turbine gearbox design standards.

Bio: Yi Guo is a senior scientist at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). At NREL, Guo is dedicated to research and development in dynamic modeling, reliability analysis, vibro-acoustics, data analysis, and design optimization of wind-turbine drivetrains and wave energy devices. Prior to NREL, she pursued her Ph.D. research at Ohio State University with specialization in dynamics, vibration, and acoustics of wind turbine and helicopter drivetrains. She received her M.S. and B.S. degrees from Xi’an Jiaotong University in China with the focus on fluid mechanics. Guo has published numerous journal articles, conference papers, and technical reports with more than 1,000 citation records.

Dominik Kratzer
FZG Gear Research Centre, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Abstract Title: Effects of different shot peening treatments in combination with a superfinishing process on the surface durability of case-hardened gears

Abstract: There have been extensive scientific studies in the past on the positive effects of shot peening and superfinishing, however a detailed quantification of a calculation model of these two effects has not been subject to in-depth investigation yet. To address this gap in knowledge, a study was carried out to examine and evaluate different peening processes and the resulting residual stress profiles in combination with a superfinishing process. By correlating the pitting durability from the experimental investigations with existing calculation methods, it was possible to extend the surface factor ZR from ISO 6336 to a wider range of roughness values as well as to introduce a new factor ZS for different shot peening treatments.

Bio: Dominik Kratzer is a Research Associate at the FZG Gear Research Centre with the main topic “Gear fatigue life.” He has bachelor’s and master’s degrees  in mechanical engineering. This is his first participation at an AGMA Fall Technical Meeting.

Dr. Parviz Merati
Western Michigan University, United States

Abstract Title: Gear sliding losses

Abstract: Accurately predicting frictional losses is critical for increasing overall gearbox efficiency. This paper documents an approach used to incorporate the effect of lubrication characteristics, gear geometry, surface finish, and operating conditions into an algorithm that accurately predicts sliding losses over a range of operating conditions for a standard set of gears. The methodology developed for simple contacts is used to predict gear sliding losses for much more complicated cases of spur and helical gears, where load and rolling and sliding speed of the contact patch varies at each roll angle during the mesh cycle.

Bio: Dr. Parviz Merati is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Western Michigan University (WMU), Kalamazoo, Michigan. Merati received his Ph.D. in theoretical and applied mechanics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was a Post-Doctoral fellow at the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. Merati is a registered professional engineer in the state of Michigan. Merati joined WMU in 1986 and was a Summer Faculty-Fellow at NASA Glen Research Center in 1988. He was the Chair of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at WMU for 21 years from 1994-2015. Merati has won several NSF awards for his work on tribology of mechanical seals and has a large body of journal and conference publications in the area of mechanical seals, experimental fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. He teaches a graduate course in tribology focusing on lubrication hydrodynamics, electrohydrodynamic lubrication, and wear. His current research interests are in the area of measurement and prediction of friction and wear for spur and helical gears.

Philipp Norgauer
Gear Research Centre, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Abstract Title: A new approach for the calculation of worm shaft deflection in worm and crossed helical gear drives

Abstract: According to the current state of the art, worm shaft deflection can be calculated according to ANSI/AGMA 6022, DIN 3996 and ISO/TR 14521. In this paper, the current calculation status for worm shaft deflection is discussed, and a new approach for the worm shaft deflection calculation is developed.The new method allows calculation of the bending stiffness of overhung worm shafts as well as worms of reduced tooth thickness, which are usually used in crossed helical gear boxes.

Bio: Philipp Norgauer is a Research Associate at the Gear Research Centre (FZG) specializing in worm- and crossed-helical gears. His research topics are the efficiency, load capacity, and simulation of these gear types. He studied at TU Munich and finished his studies with a master’s degree in 2015. Since then, he worked at FZG. He is an active member in the DIN committee of worm-gear standardization and worked in the ISO TC60-SC1-WG7.

Robin Olson
Rexnord Industries, United States

Abstract Title: Case study of ISO 6336-22 method

Abstract: ISO/TS 6336-22 specifies a method to calculate the risk of micropitting in gear sets through the use of a safety factor. The safety factor is calculated as the minimum specific film thickness in the contact zone divided by a permissible specific film thickness. The permissible specific film thickness is best determined through experience or testing, but there is an option to estimate it based on the lubricant’s failure load stage in FZG testing.In this paper, real cases of micropitting have been identified in gear sets operating in high speed, low speed, and intermediate speed applications. The ISO/TS 6336-22 method has been applied to these cases in order to determine whether the method reliably predicts that micropitting will occur.

Bio: Robin Olson is the Director of Applications Engineering for the Material Handling Vertical at Rexnord Industries.  Olson started her career at The Falk Corporation in 1995 and has previously worked in the Sustaining Engineering, Computer Aided Engineering, and Engineering Technical Services groups during her career there. She is a member of the AGMA Helical Gear Rating Committee, Chairperson of the AGMA 925 subcommittee, and is honored to act as U.S. delegate to ISO Working Groups 6 (Gear calculations).  Previously, Olson has also been a member of the AGMA Computer Programming, Enclosed Drives, and Marine Drive committees. Olson holds a bachelor’s of science in physics from the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse and a master’s of science in physics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Daniel Vietze
Institute of Machine Elements, Technical University of Munich, Germany

Abstract Title: Service life of cylindrical and bevel gears under variable load and stresses

Abstract: Transmissions are usually loaded by variable external loads under real operating conditions. Variable loads can be considered in the calculation of the load carrying capacity by using application factors, overload factors, or more complex standards such as ISO 6336-6. This paper gives a brief overview of currently applied methods to consider variable loads in the design process of cylindrical, bevel, and hypoid gears. The scope of application of these methods is shown and critically analyzed for the damage mechanism pitting, tooth root breakage, and tooth flank fracture. Furthermore, the influence of locally changing stresses on the pitting load carrying capacity is explained on bevel and hypoid gears. A method to assess such influence is shown for constant external loads.

Bio: Daniel Vietze is a Research Associate at the Institute of Machine Elements at the Technical University of Munich in Germany. He has bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering from the Technical University of Munich. His research focuses on fatigue life analysis as well as on bevel and hypoid gears. He is presenting for the first time at the AGMA Fall Technical Meeting.

Matthew Wagner
Applied Research Lab, Penn State, United States

Abstract Title: Single tooth bending fatigue testing at any R ratio

Abstract: This paper outlines Single Tooth Reversible Bending Fatigue (STRBF) testing, which overcomes previous test limitations by allowing compressive loads to be applied to the test tooth root in any magnitude in conjunction with the typical tensile loads. This test setup involves three teeth of the test gear, with the upper and lower teeth providing the reactions in the up-and-down load directions, and the test tooth being subject to test loads in both directions. Any R-ratio applicable to gear-bending fatigue testing up to and including fully reversed loading (1 > R ≥ -1) is possible. Non-dimensional examples of fatigue data from a recently completed fully reversed testing program are shown.

Bio: Matthew Wagner joined Penn State University’s Applied Research Lab (ARL) in 2015 where he works as a Research and Development Engineer in ARL’s Drivetrain Center and Gear Research Institute. He holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Penn State University and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech. Prior to joining ARL, Wagner worked for eight years designing and managing implementation of automated production equipment for a wide range of industries. His current research interests include gear health monitoring and prognostics, gear-tooth metrology and surface finish evaluation, fully reversed single tooth bending fatigue testing, and loss of lubrication evaluation. He also focuses on development of test methods that allow performance testing of production gears in lieu of representative test specimens. Wagner has co-authored two FTM papers and was also a presenter at last year’s FTM.

Christian Westphal
Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Abstract Title: Analysis of the operational behavior of a high-speed planetary gear stage for electric heavy-duty trucks in multi-body simulation

Abstract: In this paper, the operational behavior of a high-speed planetary gear stage for electric heavy-duty trucks is analyzed in dynamic multi-body simulation MBS. The tooth contact analysis method developed is extended by the simulation of planetary gears in the MBS. Different bearing strategies for planetary gears are compared, and the effects on the operational behavior are evaluated. In addition to the dynamic transmission error, the dynamic tooth flank pressures are analyzed both in their amplitude and their distribution on the tooth flank. Furthermore, bearing forces are evaluated in dynamic operating points. In the simulation, the misalignment of the gears is directly taken into account by means of a penetration calculation in every time step.

Bio: Christian Westphal is a research associate in the Gear Department at the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen University. He studied Industrial Engineering and Management with a major in automotive engineering and corporate development at RWTH Aachen University. After several years as a student research assistant, he started his research activities in the field of gear acoustics. He is working on special gearings and the dynamic excitation behavior of planetary gearboxes.

Pricing

  • Member Price for individual attendee: $349
  • Non-member Price for individual attendee: $499
  • Student Rate (with proof of scanned ID and student email): $75*

* Students must fill out the form at www.agma.org/2020-fall-technical-meeting and send a scanned copy of ID.

Please note that each individual person should have their own registration even if you share a work space with a colleague. If your company would like to discuss a group discount, please email lewis@agma.org.

Calendar of Events

September 15 — Powder Metallurgy Committee Meeting — WebEx

September 22 — Metallurgy and Materials Committee Meeting — WebEx

September 24 — Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting — WebEx

September 25 — 3D Printing Committee Meeting — WebEx

September 29 — Wormgearing Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 2 — Electric Drive Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 6 — Nomenclature Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 7 — Aerospace Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 8 — Gear Accuracy Committee — WebEx

October 9 — Lubrication Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 13 — Electric Drive Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 13–15 — Gearbox Systems Design — Virtual

October 16 — Electric Drive Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 20 — Fall Technical Meeting Live Q&A Session — Virtual Platform

October 21 — Powder Metallurgy Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 23 — Metallurgy and Materials Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 27 — Wormgearing Committee Meeting — WebEx

October 29 — Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting — WebEx