Determining the minimum cooling rate required for quenchants

In this column, I will illustrate a method to determine if a cooling rate from a cooling curve is adequate to achieve required properties. Introduction When...

Calculating quench tank size for continuous furnaces

When measuring the temperature rise of an unheated quench tank, the equation used to determine the size of a quench tank is: Where Mm is...

Sizing tanks for batch immersion quenching

In this column, I will demonstrate how to calculate the size of a quench tank used for batch immersion quenching. Introduction The size of a batch...

Determining equivalent concentration for polymer quenchants

In this column, I will discuss a method to determine equivalent concentration when selecting alternative quenchants using the Segerberg Hardening Power (HP) for polymer...

Heat-resistant alloys used in heat treating

In this column, I will discuss the different types of heat-resistant alloys used in heat treating. Introduction Heat-resistant alloys are crucial to heat-treating operations. They are...

Base oil groups for coolants, quenchants explained

In this column, I will discuss the different groups of oil used in coolants, quenchants, and other oil-based products. Introduction Many products that are used in...

Determining concentration by weight and volume

In this column, I will discuss the different types of concentration percentages and how to convert them to each other. This is really a...

Foaming in polymer quenchants and metal working fluids

In this column, I will discuss the causes of foaming in polymer quenchants and metalworking fluids. We will also discuss the different types of...

Nitrogen-methanol atmospheres – storage and control

In this column, I will discuss the storage and control of methanol to create nitrogen methanol atmospheres. Introduction Nitrogen-methanol atmospheres are used frequently when natural gas...

Use of nitrogen-methanol endothermic atmospheres

In this column, I will discuss the use of nitrogen-methanol endothermic atmospheres for the heat treatment of steel. Introduction When heat treating steels in a typical...

Using polymer quenchants in an integral quench furnace

There have recently been several inquiries regarding the use of a polymer quenchant in a sealed or integral quench furnace. There are several drivers...

Sinter hardening of PM components

In this column, I will discuss sinter hardening and compare that process to the more traditional heat-treating quench and temper operation. Introduction The use of powder...

Determining concentration and required amounts

In this column, I will discuss how to calculate the required amounts of quenchant in a quench tank. This method is also applicable to...

NMTP – Pearlite and ferrite

In this column, we will discuss the non-martensitic transformation products of pearlite and bainite. Introduction Pearlite was named by Henry Howe for the pearly phase constituent...

Non-martensitic transformation products: Bainite

In this column, I will discuss the non-martensitic transformation product called bainite. Introduction The decomposition of austenite, when occurring at a fast enough rate to exceed...

Residual stresses from machining

In this column, we will discuss the sources of distortion and residual stresses from machining operations. The problem of residual stresses and distortion is...

Pack carburizing of steels

Pack carburizing is a very old method of carburizing steel, but it is still practiced in many tool rooms and machine shops. It is...

Nitriding of steels

In this column, we will discuss the nitriding of steels. Nitriding introduces nitrogen into the surface of a steel at a lower temperature than carburizing....

Stress relief is a key step in parts manufacturing

In this column, we will discuss the process of stress relief and compare it to the effects of annealing. During the manufacturing process, residual...

Comparison of carburizing methods

In this column, we will discuss the different methods of carburizing, with a focus on resultant metallurgy. Introduction Carburizing is the addition of carbon to the...