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June 2020

Ka-Wood Gear & Machine

For the last century, Ka-Wood Gear & Machine has been manufacturing precision gear products that include spur, helical, and worm gears, as well as producing spline shafts, racks, timing belt pulleys, and sprockets for a vast array of  industries.

It’s not every company that can boast it’s been in business for a century, and that milestone is not something the owners of Ka-Wood Gear & Machine take for granted. Those 10 decades were filled with a lot of ups and downs for the gear industry, but being able to change with the times while […]
Kenneth Carter

Optimization of asymmetric tooth root generated with protuberance hob

Demonstrating the construction and optimization of the tooth root fillet while leaving required grinding stock on the involute tooth flanks.

The Direct Gear Design [1] method optimizes various parameters and elements of gear tooth geometry to achieve the required gear-drive performance. One such critical element of the tooth profile is the root fillet. Previous publications had considered asymmetric tooth root fillet optimization assuming the tooth involute flanks and root fillets are processed (machined) simultaneously. However, […]
Dr. Alexander Kapelevich, Dr. Yuriy Shekhtman

Long hob cost savings over the length of a job

Comparing the influence of geometric variations in physical hob size on tool life; specifically, the overall length of the hob.

Manufacturers consider many factors when shopping for a gear hob solution: What material is being cut? What is the pitch of the part? Will the hob be delivered on time, and what will it cost? Unless the job is hot and lead time is critical, the cost of the tool tends to be the deciding […]
Michael Weas

Conjugate Action Law in Intersected-Axes Gear Pairs and in Crossed-Axes Gear Pairs

Dealing with geometrically-accurate gears with parallel-axes gear sets, intersected-axes gear sets, and with crossed-axes gear sets.

The article deals with the kinematics and the geometry of geometrically-accurate gearing (with perfect gearing). Considered at the beginning for parallel-axes involute gearing, conjugate action law later on is formulated for intersected-axes gearing (straight bevel gearing, spiral bevel gearing, and so forth), as well as for crossed-axes gearing (hypoid gearing, spiroid gearing, worm gearing, and […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

May 2020

Gearwheel manufacturing in a 34-second cycle

By using KAPP NILES gear grinding machines, Volkswagen is making strides in its gearbox production.

Minimizing production times to ensure competitiveness is one of the most important challenges in the automotive industry — Henry Ford already recognized this over a century ago. After decades of optimization, it is difficult to reduce machining times even further while maintaining the same level of quality. Nevertheless, the company Volkswagen (VW), near the German […]
Martin Witzsch

Performance and properties of a new alternative gear steel

Hybrid steels show many interesting properties relevant to gear applications, somewhat depending on the area of application and the working conditions.

In the ongoing strive for light weighting or power densification, high-performance clean steels are showing a significant improvement. As a next step, gear steels that combine several properties, are now proving an interesting alternative. Traditional gear steels achieve their maximum hardness after carburizing and a fast quench. A fast quench usually results in distortion as […]
Lily Kamjou, Joakim Fagerlund, MSc

April 2020

Romax Technology

Romax Technology provides class-leading simulation solutions for the design, analysis, testing, and manufacture of electro-mechanical drivetrain systems.

Designing, creating, and manufacturing gears and drive systems can make up a sizeable piece of a manufacturer’s budget. By employing innovative technology as an integral part of the development process, much of that cost can be minimized — this is accomplished through simulation-led design and virtual prototyping. Romax Technology does just that with its leading […]
Kenneth Carter

Micro-skiving – (r)evolution of a known production process

Micro-skiving has been developed that allows users access to the skiving technique for machining inner micro-teeth.

Production of internally toothed gear wheels is possible in many different ways. Different techniques such as gashing, broaching, wire EDM, or shaving make it possible to achieve these profiles. However, skiving seems to be the optimal solution for reducing production time of this type of gears when large production batches are required. This internal gear […]
Pierre Falbriard, Hervé Baour

Chamfer Hobbing Tools Up

With the development of new cutting tool technology, chamfering with hobs has found new life; chamfer hobbing is now the process of choice for chamfering and deburring automotive-size gears in medium and high volumes.

In the last few years, chamfering and deburring have gained new respect and risen to a level of importance equal to that of other processes. Manufacturers of Electrical Vehicle (EV) drive systems, where noise behavior is of paramount importance and hard finishing a must, are keenly aware of how an improperly chamfered and deburred gear […]
Gottfried Klein

March 2020


Starting out almost a century ago by making clock parts, Neugart now develops, produces, and sells planetary gearboxes and custom gearboxes all around the world to a variety of industries.

Gearboxes are, quite literally, the driving force for dozens of industries, and Neugart makes reliable, quality gearboxes that have helped push the family-owned company into the global arena. A large part of that success is due to Neugart’s ability to create gearboxes using a modular design. “It’s that modular design that allows us to pretty […]
Kenneth Carter

Opportunities of Efficiency Improvement by the Use of Hydro Lubricants

While searching for a material that meets all of the general and branch-specific lubrication requirements, water is a visionary, yet obvious, raw material available worldwide that’s non-toxic and non-combustible.

1 Introduction Although different base oil types exist in the market and are widely in use, the majority of industrial lubricants are still based on mineral oils due primarily to low cost and easy miscibility with other oils. However, despite their widespread use, conventional lubricants reach functional limits in various scenarios. In addition to the […]
Matthias Pfadt, Elena von Horsten, Balasubramaniam Vengudusamy

Advantages of flat broaching machines

Flat broach manufacturing is a tooling option that offers some advantages to circular broaching, but the tools need to maintain optimum sharpness in order to be effective.

A broaching machine requires precision broaching tools to increase productivity and efficiency. New broaching tools can be expensive and difficult to customize. Continuous use quickly dulls broach tools, and sharpening services can be time-consuming. If a broaching tool is cracked, bent, or otherwise seriously damaged, sharpening services are no longer capable of restoring the tooling. […]
Jeff Burg

February 2020

The L.S. Starrett Co.

The L.S. Starrett Co. has been designing, manufacturing, and supplying high-quality, precision measuring tools, metrology systems, and more for 140 years.

When companies need to ensure the highest and most accurate quality control process, they turn to the experts at Starrett. Founded in 1880 and headquartered in Athol, Massachusetts, The L.S. Starrett Company is a leading global manufacturer of precision measuring tools and gages, optical comparators, vision systems, force measurement, and hardness testing solutions. Starrett also […]
Kenneth Carter

Reliability of gears: Determination of statistically validated material strength numbers

This paper is intended to give a review on the statistical reliability behavior of cylindrical gears with regard to pitting and tooth root breakage failures.

One of the most important goals when designing a gearbox is to ensure a sufficient reliability in operation. Depending on the field of application, the acceptable probability of failure may be different, typical values commonly are in the range of 0.01 percent to 10 percent. Material strength values regarding main failure modes such as pitting […]
Michael Hein, Thomas Tobie, Karsten Stahl, Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Pinnekamp

Understanding the mounting distance: Crossed-axes gearing (hypoid gearing)

In this article, a favorable configuration of bevel gears in crossed-axes gearing is discussed in which it is stressed that the mounting distance is one of the most important design parameters in crossed-axes gearing.

Mounting distance is one of the most critical design parameters in crossed-axes gearing (in hypoid gearing, spiroid gearing, and so forth). In this article, the concept of the mounting distance in intersected-axes gearing [1] is evolved to the case of crossed-axes gearing. The mounting distance is discussed with a focus on “geometrically accurate crossed-axes gearing” […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

January 2020

Haas Schleifmaschinen GmbH

By offering 5-axis grinding machines and customizable application software that can perform multiple operations, Haas Schleifmaschinen GmbH is making quite a name for itself in several industries, including gear manufacturing.

When a gear or a geared shaft is being produced, it’s often moved through several machines before the finished product is ready. But Haas Schleifmaschinen GmbH has the capability of offering gear manufacturing that takes the multiple machines out of the process. “We’re about combining operations,” said David Drechsler, business development manager for Haas Multigrind® […]
Kenneth Carter

Integrated Approach for Gear Testing of High-Performance Clean Steels

In this report, a test gear geometry for investigating contact fatigue strength (pitting) of high-performance clean steels is determined, and based on two well-established test gear geometries for contact fatigue test, a detailed comparison with regard to their potential of maximum contact pressure is performed.

The power density of gearboxes is continuously increased by different research activities. Besides new material developments, the cleanliness of steels comes to the forefront in order to meet future requirements regarding load carrying capacity of gears. The experimental quantification of the load carrying potentials for high performance steels is the basis for introducing cleanliness as […]
Christoph Lopenhaus, Dieter Mevissen, Lily Kamjou, Elias Lothman

High-end coating can increase gear-cutting productivity

Using Oerlikon Balzers coating solutions, customers are able to increase their productivity, which results in higher total production output and lower manufacturing costs.

The machining industry’s demand for increased productivity and reduced costs continues to drive developments that focus on innovative, state-of-the-art tools and cutting materials as well as changes in production technologies. In addition, tailored tool coatings play a special key role in increasing cutting speeds, raising productivity, and lowering costs for demanding gear-cutting processes. Excellent performance […]
Osny Fabricio