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December 2023

Effect of tooth root fillet design on plastic-gear tooth root stress

Tooth root fillet geometries with trochoidal, elliptical, fully rounded, and bionic profiles for steel-plastic pairings are investigated on two different gear sizes.

The geometry of plastic gears used today is usually based on conventional steel gears, which are bound to the restrictions of the machining production of gears. The injection molding process provides more design freedom here. In this work, simulative results in terms of tooth root stress in plastic gears with various tooth root fillet designs […]
W. Kassem, M. Oehler, O. Koch

Bevel gearboxes: A versatile solution for efficient power transmission

Gearing, bearings, and seals need to work together internally – when considering gearing, designers must think about the impact on the entire system. 

Bevel gearboxes have been a crucial component in various industries for more than a century. Their ability to translate rotation and torque at a 90-degree angle makes them a versatile solution for power transmission.  Though bevel gearing may seem somewhat rudimentary by today’s engineering standards, bevels are a powerful tool that, if modified and applied […]
Rick Wucherer

November 2023

Services: Sandvik Coromant

For more than 80 years, Sandvik Coromant has been a manufacturer of premium metal-cutting tools, providing high-end services and machining technology.

When it comes to manufacturing gears, there’s a lot more involved in the process than just making them — although that is an important and crucial step. In its 80-plus year history, Swedish-based Sandvik Coromant has moved beyond the status quo by offering, not only the actual tools to make gears, but services to maintain […]
Kenneth Carter

Tooling: Horn USA

Horn USA offers a wide array of cutting tools that can be used wherever maximum precision is required: From the automotive industry and aerospace technology to the jewelry industry and medical technology.

When it comes to manufacturing gears, the bottom line often boils down to precision — precision in cutting, precision in milling, precision in skiving. Whatever the process, precision is key. Horn USA, a subsidiary of Paul Horn GmbH, continues to advance its goals of producing the best and most precise gear tooling available to the […]
Kenneth Carter

Machines: ANCA

For 50 years, ANCA has provided a complete solution to its customers, designing and manufacturing almost all its technology in-house, including grinding machines, motion controls, and software for manufacturing solutions.

Turnkey solutions are often a must for many gear-manufacturing companies, so it makes it all the more important to deal with established experts who can provide this crucial function. For half a century, the innovative teams behind ANCA have been doing just that. “We don’t just provide the grinding machine and leave the customer alone; […]
Kenneth Carter

October 2023

Optimizing the operational behavior of double helical gears

Optimized double helical gearing designs can help to save weight, assembly space and costs of turbo gear units, increase efficiency, and ensure low-noise operation. Double helical gears are becoming increasingly relevant, especially in the fields of turbomachinery, aerospace, and electro mobility. The reasons for this are the elimination of axial forces, which means bearings can […]
Alexander Mann, Dr.-Ing. Jens Brimmers, Christian Brecher

6 tips to optimize throughput in the CGG grinding process

Continuous generating gear grinding can deliver numerous benefits if best practices are followed for choosing the right wheel, operator training, and system setup.

Gears are essential components in many machines and devices, such as cars, airplanes, robots, and wind turbines. Gears transmit power and motion between rotating shafts, and they need to be durable, efficient, and quiet. To achieve these qualities, gears are usually case hardened, which means they have a hard outer layer and a tough inner […]
Dennis Brown

Implementation of a gear health monitoring system on a power recirculating test rig

Angle resampling and time synchronous averaging (TSA) are used in conjunction with the Average Log Ratio (ALR) to successfully detect pitting, bending fatigue, scuffing, and loss of lubrication failures with four square power recirculating test rigs.

The ability to detect the onset of a gear-system failure via accelerometer measurements is of interest in a research environment as well as in gear systems deployed in the field. The goal in either case is to detect a failure as early as possible while simultaneously minimizing the risk of false shutdowns. The accelerometer-based gear […]
Matthew Wagner, Aaron Isaacson, Dr. William D. Mark

September 2023

Liebherr Gear and Automation Technologies, Inc.

Liebherr offers manufacturing solutions to customers around the world for the broadest spectrum of gear-manufacturing applications, including gear-cutting machines, metrology, and automation.

When a company has been in business for more than 70 years, the list of extensive services and innovations it can offer is both detailed and long. It’s also a testament to the longevity and ingenuity that has been at the center of Liebherr for decades. “Currently, Liebherr offers hobbing, shaping, skiving, chamfering, and both […]
Kenneth Carter

A decomposition of the torsional stiffness of a worm gearbox into individual components

An FEM modeling approach is used to obtain the individual proportions of the angular displacement caused by an external load at the worm wheel shaft of two worm gearboxes decomposed in individual components for gears, worm wheel shaft, worm shaft and wheel shaft bearings, and housing.

In worm-drive applications with precise transmission, the torsional stiffness of the worm gearbox is an important parameter for the positioning accuracy. Moreover, it influences the dynamic behavior of a worm gearbox. The torsional stiffness is a result of elasticities from all gearbox components along the load path. This leads to various options for an optimization […]
K. Daubach, M. Oehler, O. Koch

Creating gears to withstand critical environments

Manufacturers should consider alternative manufacturing processes in order to accommodate high part volumes rather than downgrading existing methods.

For most applications, conventional manufacturing methods are capable of processing gears with the sufficient strength, fatigue resistance, tolerances, and friction coefficients needed to fulfill their intended purposes. For critical applications, however, manufacturers must overcome a variety of design, material, and production-related challenges to produce components capable of withstanding these demanding environments.  For the purpose of […]
Kirk Gino Abolafia

How perfectly modified gears can be designed and machined

A correct solution to the problem of gear tooth flank modification could be solved on the premise of scientific theory of gearing, along with in-detail understanding of modern methods of gear finishing processes.

The main goal of gear tooth flank modification is a reduction of sensitivity of gearing to the variation of the tooth flank geometry, and to various displacements of the gears from their desirable configuration under operating load, especially when the power density through the gear pair increases. For this purpose, a determination of favorable geometry […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

August 2023

Horn USA

Horn USA offers a wide array of cutting tools that can be used wherever maximum precision is required: From the automotive industry and aerospace technology to the jewelry industry and medical technology.

When it comes to manufacturing gears, the bottom line often boils down to precision — precision in cutting, precision in milling, precision in skiving. Whatever the process, precision is key. Horn USA, a subsidiary of Paul Horn GmbH, continues to advance its goals of producing the best and most precise gear tooling available to the […]
Kenneth Carter

Extensive applications of PM gears

Powder metal gears boast many advantages over more traditional gear-manufacturing processes.

Powder metallurgy is a manufacturing process that involves compacting metal powder under high pressure and then sintering them at elevated temperatures to form solid components. Miba Sinter USA uses a range of metal powders such as iron, steel, and alloys, depending on the specific application requirements. Powder metal gears are widely used in various industries […]
Robert Gavran

Precision machining with abrasive brushes

Abrasive brush machining is a cost-effective, time-reducing method that can complement many workpiece types and solve the problems of many chamfering, deburring, or finishing challenges.

Abrasive brushes are useful tools in all sorts of applications. They’ve been around for many years and are used every day in all types of chamfering, deburring, and finishing processes but when properly applied, they can be used as a precision machining process holding incredible tolerances. Their application is often misunderstood and applied in ways […]
Adam Mutschler, Eric Mutschler

6 Benefits of AR in manufacturing

Augmented reality is becoming a growing and useful tool to maintain a more efficient shop floor during the manufacturing process.

Manufacturers are increasingly incorporating augmented reality in their digital transformation strategy. Augmented reality provides a multiplier effect for improving the efficiency and quality of production and inspection processes. Defect detection assistance, improved production rate, increased safety for the factory and teams, increased productivity, reduced cycle times, and, above all, reduced costs: The benefits are numerous. […]
Wendy Mlynarek

July 2023

Investigations on the tooth root bending strength of larger-sized, induction-hardened gears

In order to achieve a high tooth root load-carrying capacity, a surface hardness exceeding the standard specifications for induction-hardened gears as well as a hardness pattern close to the contour and as uniform as possible over the gear circumference must be reliably set.

Surface hardening is an economical and technological alternative to case hardening. This is especially true for larger-sized gears. Due to the necessary high case-hardening depths required for larger case-hardened gears and due to technological boundaries (e.g., heat-treatment furnace size and heat-treatment duration) typical surface-hardening processes such as flame or induction hardening can exhibit their benefits […]
Holger Cermak, Thomas Tobie, Karsten Stahl

High-performance plastics in automotive actuator applications

Designing for reliability and performance while reducing weight, noise, and cost of ICE, hybrid, and fully electric vehicles.

Over the last two decades, the automotive industry has been putting great effort into reducing vehicle emissions by developing highly efficient modern internal combustion engines (ICE). As part of this endeavor, various engine control units and actuators have been deployed to enable modern ICE vehicles to run at a high operating efficiency, helping to significantly […]
Adnan Hasanovic

Advanced SAM validates integrity of diffusion bonds

For bond quality testing, scanning acoustic microscopy offers far greater accuracy and reliability than traditional helium leak testing.

Industries with demanding metal-bonding applications are increasingly relying on diffusion bonding, an essential joining method for achieving a high-purity interface between two similar or even dissimilar metals. The process involves applying high temperature and pressure to metals mated together in a hot press, which causes the atoms on solid metallic surfaces to intersperse and bond. […]
Del Williams

Update on live tooling

A review of this machining method, the basic concepts and some exciting developments in the technology.

Live tooling, as a component on a lathe, is specifically manipulated by the CNC to perform various milling, drilling, and other operations while the workpiece is being held in position by the main or sub spindle. These components, whether BMT or VDI, are also called driven tools, as opposed to static tools, that are used […]
Preben Hansen

June 2023


Siemens has advanced the gear-manufacturing industry by offering innovative CNC machine designs that take the machining process to the next level.

CNC machines have been a part of making quality gears for years, but it takes an innovative company to ensure that the technology remains state of the art and the best the industry has available. Siemens provides advanced CNC controls for machine tools used in workshops, job shops, and large-series production. “Siemens has been involved […]
Kenneth Carter

Modern green and hard machining of double helical gears

After a short introduction about the advantages of herringbone gears (no gap between the two gears) and double helical gears (with a gap) and their areas of application, the article goes into detail on the properties and limits of manufacturing processes for machining these gears. The technology data and the gear quality achieved are listed […]
Dr. Andreas E. Mehr, Dr. Oliver Winkel, Scott L. Yoders

Design features of hobbed bevel gears for crossed-axes gear sets

In numerous applications, Palloid gearing is advantageous over gearing of other gear systems.

This article deals with hobbed bevel gears for crossed-axes gear pairs. The discussion is primarily focused on the kinematics and geometry of the generated tooth flanks of the machined gears. A possibility of hobbing of the bevel gears is the key feature of the gear design under consideration. The discussion begins with a brief overview […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

A guide on hobbing: How it’s evolved and what to look for

Hobbing is a fast and efficient way to produce gears of all sorts and sizes, especially with the leaps and bounds it has made from its beginnings as a manual process to the highly technical operation it is today.

Gears are used widely throughout modern industry to transfer power and motion or control speed and torque in a wide range of mechanical devices. Most gears are produced on a hobbing machine, which, when compared to other methods, has proven efficient and inexpensive. This article will take a closer look at the process of gear […]
Steven Lindley

May 2023

All Metals & Forge Group

For more than 50 years, All Metals & Forge Group has produced custom and standard open die forgings and seamless rolled rings in a host of different alloys for a wide range of industries.

It’s no small testament to be able to say a business has been going strong for more than half a century, but All Metals & Forge Group has been manufacturing and selling open die forgings and seamless rolled rings to a variety of industries for 51 years. And if Lewis Weiss, the company president and […]
Kenneth Carter

Gear grinding service levels taken to new heights

Automatic machine component monitoring, or ACD, can be used by applying artificial intelligence (AI) to predict and avoid negative wear impacts.

Continuous generating gear grinding has established itself as the preferred method of hard-finishing automotive gears. The machine tools – the gear grinding machines – have reached an elevated level of maturity, leaving little room for improvement on the mechanical side. However, recent developments in process and component monitoring have added a new dimension to the […]
Dr. Christian Dietz, Walter Graf

Grind ’em cool: Premium solution for grinding large gears

Serial production of large gears requires many hours of workpiece set-up, programming, grinding, dressing, and quality control, so it is important to use a premium grinding wheel with precision-shaped abrasive grain.

Serial production of large gears requires a high level of quality, excellence, and continuity in production. Particular emphasis is placed on maximum synergy between the grinding machine, the grinding process and the grinding wheel. After several successful trials on various Klingelnberg Höfler Rapid grinding machines carried out by Krebs & Riedel with customers in their […]
Philipp Bötte

Forging solutions: Expert troubleshooting and training using AR

Today, forging companies face significant workforce challenges that can lead to excessive production downtime and lower productivity. Among these are the lack of available skilled workers in manufacturing locations, the immense knowledge/talent gap left by retiring workers, and the urgent need to mentor and develop younger workers. To effectively deal with these issues, it is […]
Del Williams

April 2023


AssetWatch designs and offers software and hardware to help eliminate unplanned downtime with turnkey condition monitoring and predictive maintenance solutions.

The mechanics of condition monitoring and predictive maintenance could be summed up with two simple words: asset watching. Those two words — and that simple philosophy — are what powers AssetWatch® and those essential manufacturing concepts make up the company’s services and expertise. What AssetWatch can bring to the gearing industry is a multi-layered answer, […]
Kenneth Carter

In Process Measurement and Compensation for Manufacturing Skiving Cutters

The combination of path compensation and in-process measurement for controlling the flank profile is tested when setting up the grinding of a pinion cutter using the IGG technique.

There is a strong and growing demand for skiving cutters, used for the mass production of gears. Compared to the shaping process, the skiving process avoids a brutally interrupted cut, providing new opportunities for carbide tooling. This presents new challenges for cutter manufacturing: pinion cutters may deviate from the involute profile significantly, and the use […]
Dr. Stephen R. Williams, Xiaoyu Wang

Workholding solutions and setup considerations

A good workholding setup can streamline quick production runs while guaranteeing that all batch parts adhere to specifications.

Even with advanced cutting tools, it may be challenging to produce machined parts with high accuracy and precision if there is no workholding method. Workholding fixtures help to hold parts firmly during machining. From milling vises to jigs and fixtures, many workholding options are available. However, the type of materials you are working on and […]
Raymond Cheng

March 2023

Broaching Machine Specialties

Broaching Machine Specialties builds a variety of standard lines of new broaching equipment and special machines for unique broaching applications.

Broaching Machine Specialties (BMS) President Matt Egrin takes an interesting approach to how he wants his company to be known — as the Trader Joe’s of the machine tool industry, in that it provides a level of service that outshines its competition. “For example, when you go into a Trader Joe’s grocery store and you […]
Kenneth Carter

Investigating the scuffing load carrying capacity of hypoid gear oils

A new test method has been developed consisting of a running-in procedure and a step test of up to 14 load stages as the main test phase, using a hypoid test gear.

Highly loaded hypoid gears, which are preferably used in vehicle axle drives, exhibit an unfavorable combination of high sliding velocities and high contact stresses in tooth contact with regard to the failure mode scuffing. For this reason, the scuffing load carrying capacity is a decisive design criterion in the development of hypoid gears. In addition […]
Alexander Drechsel M.Sc., Josef Pellkofer, Karsten Stahl

Estimation of drag finishing abrasive effect for cutting-edge preparation in broaching tool

The performance of an abrasive mixture of SiC and Al2O2 at different grain sizes and percentages of mixture is used to prepare uncoated tungsten carbide broaching tools by a drag finishing process.

In recent years, cutting-edge preparation became a topic of high interest in the manufacturing industry because of the important role it plays in the performance of the cutting tool. This article describes the use of the drag finishing DF cutting-edge preparation process on the cutting tool for the broaching process. The main process parameters were […]
Cristian F. Pérez-Salinas, Ander del Olmo, Rorberto López de Lacalle

Calculating mounting distance tolerances

Although no reliable methods have yet been developed to calculate tolerances for the mounting distance in intersected-axes and crossed-axes gearing, required configurations of the gears in a gear pair are more commonly obtained by means of the ‘trial and error method.’

The mounting distance in intersected-axes gearing and in crossed-axes gearing will be explored in this article. It is shown the plane of action in a gear pair can be employed for the calculation of tolerance for the accuracy of the mounting distance in gearing of both kinds. The tolerance for the accuracy of the mounting […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

February 2023

Investigation of the effect of application of non-conventional root profiles for reduction of bending stresses in helical gear drives

A recent study was conducted that provided the variation of the alternating range of normal stresses on the root surface in the longitudinal direction of the gear teeth for tooth root profiles based on various curves and their comparisons.

The substitution of the conventional trochoid root profile in spur and helical gears by non-conventional root profiles, based on elliptical or Bèzier curves, to reduce the maximum bending stress at the gear root surfaces, has been the subject of an intensive research recently. The application of finite element models in which the load is applied […]
Ignacio Gonzalez-Perez, Alfonso Fuentes-Aznar, Jose Calvo Irisarri, Alfredo Fernandez Sison, Harri Aurrekoetxea-Arratibel

Case study: Measuring precision parts with CMM

Exact Metrology CMM helps Douglas Machine & Engineering measure aluminum plate.

Exact Metrology: A Division of In-Place Machining Company and a comprehensive 3D metrology service provider and hardware sales company, recently used its coordinate measuring machine (CMM) at its Moline, Illinois, facility to help an industrial manufacturer. Located in Davenport, Iowa, Douglas Machine & Engineering is a manufacturer of fixtures, broaches, reamers, straighteners, vises, pliers, cutters, […]
Joe Wright

Optimizing forging machine productivity, longevity

Forging equipment OEM delivers ‘health check’ while ongoing preventive maintenance program helps forgers optimize production and keep equipment online even when faced with high turnover.

In the multi-faceted gear industry, it is important to shine a spotlight on a key element of gear production: forging and the essential process of properly maintaining the equipment to avoid costly unscheduled downtime. Forging has long been used to manufacture gears with relatively simple configurations. Generally, this involves casting steel ingots, which are reduced […]
Del Williams

January 2023

Particle-based Phyllosilicate-Additive for efficiency improvement and surface protection

Tests confirm that using an innovative phyllosilicate-based surface treatment additive technology provides improvements in friction reduction on metals in both grease and oil applications.

Croda Int Plc is a developer and manufacturer of an innovative phyllosilicate-based surface treatment additive technology for gears and bearings. The particles with a platelet shape use lubricants as a carrier and build through their adsorption a protective phyllosilicate-based coating on the surface. The modified surface has a significantly lower surface roughness, which ensures a […]
Petr Chizhik, Stefan Bill, Scott Gardiner

Solid coatings: Not just for space vehicles anymore

Simple and complex solids provide efficient, cost-effective environmentally friendly lubrication and wear protection for an increasing number of applications.

Solid lubrication and wear reduction coatings were once the purview of NASA and companies in the aerospace industry. Now, they are showing up in an increasing number of applications here on the ground. The component materials for these coatings come from all over the periodic table. “Even with a relatively small number of materials, once […]
Nancy McGuire