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December 2021

NUM Corporation

NUM Corporation is a CNC high-end application company focused on making system controls, motors, and drives, as well as offering full engineering support.

Whether it’s a new CNC machine that needs an update or an older machine that must have a complete retrofit, the experts at NUM Corporation are available to make that a reality. “Beyond delivering world class hardware, our philosophy is toward developing unique software solutions for CNC machine tools that make the OEM’s machine a […]
Kenneth Carter

Service life of cylindrical and bevel gears under variable load and stresses

In the scope of this article, a brief overview of currently applied methods to consider variable loads in the design process of cylindrical as well as bevel and hypoid gears is given.

Transmissions are usually loaded by variable external loads under real operating conditions. The decisive load for a gearbox is in most cases the applied torque. Commonly used allowable stress numbers σHlim/Flim (ISO) or σHP/FP (AGMA) for calculating the load carrying capacity of cylindrical, bevel, and hypoid gears are usually derived from single stage tests carried […]
Michael Hein, Josef Pellkofer, Daniel Vietze, Karsten Stahl

Comparison of strength ratings of plastic gears by VDI 2736 and JIS B 1759

While there are differences in these methods used to determine the bending load capacity of plastic gears, both standards have their own merits.

The demand for strength ratings for plastic gears has been consistently increasing. However, there are no international standards such as ISO, DIN, or AGMA, but only domestic level or in-house guidelines are available. This situation has been a big obstacle in the plastic-gear industry. It makes it difficult for engineers to exchange knowledge on design […]
Inho Bae, Ph.D., Dr. Ulrich Kissling

Women in manufacturing: Diversifying the industry

The presence of women in manufacturing will continue to grow as more opportunities manifest themselves early on, including education and mentorships.

You don’t have to go very far back in time to find a point where the role of women in the manufacturing sector was practically nonexistent. But over the last decade or so, the ratio of women to men has seen a dramatic increase, although those statistics still have much room for improvement. Diversity in […]
Kenneth Carter

November 2021

Machines: Nidec Machine Tool America

With the recent acquisition of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Machine Tool, Nidec Corporation has added the company’s ability to design, manufacture, and sell machine tools, cutting tools, and related products to its already impressive portfolio.

It’s not often that a company makes the leap from buying a product to acquiring the company that makes that product, but Nidec is no ordinary company. Nidec has carved itself quite the reputation of being a world leader for “everything that spins and moves,” which is what drove the company to acquire Mitsubishi Heavy […]
Kenneth Carter

Services: Zygo Corporation

For almost half a century, Zygo Corporation has been a global leader in the design and manufacture of advanced optical metrology systems and ultra-precise optical components and assemblies.

Zygo takes its core philosophy of bridging the gap between academia and industry seriously. How seriously? Zygo is Latin for “bridge.” With that bridge in mind, Zygo — with its optics division and metrology division — has expanded its automotive metrology expertise over the years to include the inspection of gears and other gear-related parts. […]
Kenneth Carter

Tooling: TSA America

TSA offers custom-engineered, quality cutting tools to the gear industry while supplying hands-on technical support that exceeds customer expectations.

Offering the correct tool can involve many complex steps. Designing and manufacturing the optimum tool takes a company with years of expertise. This is especially true with skiving cutters. That’s why TSA America exists: to offer its customers quality-engineered gear tools and much more. TSA’s product line includes skiving and conventional shaper cutters, gear hobs, […]
Kenneth Carter

October 2021

Nidec Machine Tool America

With the recent acquisition of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Machine Tool, Nidec Corporation has added the company’s ability to design, manufacture, and sell machine tools, cutting tools, and related products to its already impressive portfolio.

It’s not often that a company makes the leap from buying a product to acquiring the company that makes that product, but Nidec is no ordinary company. Nidec has carved itself quite the reputation of being a world leader for “everything that spins and moves,” which is what drove the company to acquire Mitsubishi Heavy […]
Kenneth Carter

Latest advances in chamfer hobbing

With the addition of the new Genesis® 280HCD Gear Hobbing Machine, the many benefits of gear chamfering in parallel to gear hobbing are now available for a wider range of automotive and industrial applications.

While not considered a “value adding” process such as hobbing and fine finishing, cylindrical gear chamfering and deburring are getting the recognition they have long deserved today. Gear manufacturers understand that premature transmission failure, less-than-optimal efficiency, and unacceptable noise can result from application of transmission gears operating with anything less than a flawless tooth flank. […]
Gottfried Klein

Deburring with CNC machining

Removing burrs with automated machining often can be time-consuming and tedious, but a versatile, flexible honing tool can be used for cross-hole deburring all around the shop.

Delta Machine Company, LLC — based in Huntington Beach, California — is a machine shop specializing in complex, tight tolerance parts made of titanium, nickel alloys, stainless steel, aluminum, plastics, and other exotic alloys. It was recently selected as one of the 10 Best Precision Machine Shops for 2021 by a leading industry trade magazine. […]
Jeff Elliott

Detecting cracks in PM green products using laser vibrometry

This paper serves to confirm the principal possibility of crack detection in green powder metallurgy parts using laser vibrometry regardless of the crack location in the part and using integral vibration spectra on a PM part as a function of vibration intensity.

Cracking of green parts in powder metallurgy (PM) is a big concern in the PM industry. Detection of cracks in green parts before sintering can prevent recycling of already sintered parts or production of defective ones. As opposed to sintered parts, where the presence of cracks is well revealed by impact spectroscopy, it is challenging […]
A. Tatarinov, V. Kurtenoks, V. Mironovs

September 2021

United Tool Supply

With a product line of gear-inspection equipment used by small and large companies alike, United Tool Supply has been designing and manufacturing state-of-the-art products – including its Unite-A-Matic line – to inspect gears of all shapes and sizes, worldwide, for decades.

In today’s manufacturing climate, it’s true more than ever that a business can’t survive if it doesn’t treat its customers right. And that’s been a mantra for United Tool Supply for almost 50 years. It’s also a reason why the company’s customers keep coming back time and time again. “We have always been super focused […]
Kenneth Carter

Metallic glass gears up for ‘cobots,’ coatings, and more

Bulk metallic glass could slash prices of collaborative robots and lead to advanced 3D printed metals.

Where are the robot assistants we were promised? For all the space that robots have occupied in the popular imagination for the last hundred years — and although the number of real-world automatons has been growing for decades — most people’s interactions with them remain limited to a hands-free vacuum or child’s smart toy. There […]
Mike DiCicco

Formulating load-sharing behavior in epicyclic gears for wind turbines

This article validates an analytical model for estimating load sharing of three-planet epicyclic gear sets that has been reformulated for wind-turbine gearboxes to consider the effects of gravity related to carrier-bearing clearance and moments from the rotor.

In an ideal epicyclic gear set, every parallel gear path transmits the same amount of torque. However, it is well known that certain manufacturing variations result in unequal load sharing between the parallel gear paths. Previous works have developed and validated a general closed-form analytical model of this phenomenon that describes the load-sharing characteristics of […]
Yi Guo, Jonathan Keller

Specifying surface texture parameters – tricks and techniques

ZYGO talked with Dr. Mark Malburg of Digital Metrology and Carl Musolff of Musolff Consulting to discuss how to get the most out of surface parameters; their years of front-line experience provide valuable insight into precision manufacturing processes, and why choosing the right type of metrology is critical to controlling the manufacturing process.

There are many different ways that designers specify surface texture parameters for their parts. Some specifications are good, some not so good. Some are sophisticated, some quite basic, and while all are used by today’s manufacturers, it is fair to say that some are less useful than others. Specification alternatives At the least sophisticated end, […]
Eric Felkel

August 2021

Southern Gear & Machine

Southern Gear & Machine has been manufacturing a wide range of custom precision gears for industries such as aerospace, defense, and medical for almost 65 years.

Some gear manufacturers churn out quantity, but for Southern Gear & Machine, its mission is to offer quality. “The kind of gears we make are the parts nobody else makes,” said Karen Malin, president of Southern Gear & Machine. “They are very complex parts with extremely tight tolerances. Many of our gears go through 20 […]
Kenneth Carter

The advantages of pulse plasma nitriding

Pulse plasma nitriding systems can deliver more uniform case-hardening and increased speed of processing when treating high-wear parts.

In the gear manufacturing industry, when case-hardening, tempering, or nitriding the surface of steel, whether for gears or gearboxes, the options have traditionally included one of three processes: carburizing, salt-bath nitrocarburizing, or gas nitriding. Each process has advantages and disadvantages. However, those seeking more precise control of the diffusion layer formation, depth of case hardening, […]
Jeff Elliott

Incorporating 3D artificial intelligence with AR and VR technology

By using 3D AI, designers of industrial and gear equipment can see virtual specs of the design and also observe how it will function in the physical world.

The race continues between the world’s largest tech leaders and companies to see which one will prevail and power the next generation of tools, technologies, and resources for manufacturing, healthcare, construction, and many other vertical market applications. These companies have been working tirelessly to create changes that will make a significant impact on our world. […]
Dijam Panigrahi

July 2021

Sinto America, Inc.

Sinto America, Inc. and its group of operating companies provides high quality, cost-effective, and innovative equipment and solutions to a variety of industries throughout North America.

Every Sinto America employee takes pride in ensuring the best possible outcome for any challenge that comes its way. As a matter of fact, the company’s very name boasts a clue to that philosophy. In Japanese, Sinto is written as two characters: “new” and “east.” Within those two simple words are the key to how […]
Kenneth Carter

A comparison of an analytical and FEA approach in determining thermal lead correction for high-speed gears

A simplified approach for quick and reliable heat analyses for thermal lead correction of single-stage double helical high-speed gears has been developed.

For high-speed applications, gears of large dimensions and high-power density are used. Temperature distribution in those rotors is much different in operation as compared to manufacturing. Therefore, the tooth contact as it can be validated by blue ink during assembly is not only affected by distortion and bending under load but also by non-uniform thermal […]
Andreas Beinstingel, Burkhard Pinnekamp, Michael Heider, Daniel Stierli, Steffen Marburg

Tooling & Workholding: Software thought backwards

When using the proper design software, manufacturers are able to go from the desired gear to the perfect skiving tool.

There are already an infinite number of different gear geometries. Nevertheless, engineers are constantly coming up with new variants. For example, gears are becoming smaller, more complex, and lighter. At the same time, the demand for performance — quiet, smooth operation, even under highest load — is always higher. The variety of gears knows no […]
Zita Bader

Inspection & Metrology: The growing role of metrology in EV production

Advanced finishing and grinding technologies will be needed to produce extremely complex and precise surface features in gear teeth to enhance efficiency and reduce noise, thereby improving customer satisfaction.

It has become abundantly clear that not only are electric vehicles (EVs) becoming more prevalent on the roads but that almost all automotive companies are announcing plans where EVs will eventually dominate their product portfolio. As the shift from internal combustion (IC) to electric continues, the number of drivetrain components will dramatically lessen. And the […]
Mike Schmidt

Heat treatment of gears

The benefits of close interaction between gear designers and heat-treat specialists can lead to total cost and quality optimization.

Often the options of heat treat may feel pre-defined when looked at from a gear designer’s perspective. There are options, but both gear designers and some heat-treat manufacturers are constrained by limited exposure to the fundamental physics that drive the process performed by the equipment available. The heat-treat industry is old and rich with experience, […]
Bill Disler

Inspection & Metrology: Overcoming metrology bottlenecks in additive manufacturing

The focus in the area of metrology for AM is to reduce the time and cost inefficiencies inherent today of relying on a vast range of duplicate and often inadequate metrology steps to validate that an end-use part is fit for purpose.

Undoubtedly there are many benefits associated with the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a production technology. Across industries, manufacturers exploit the fact that, through the use of AM, they can not only build complex parts — in one piece — which were previously impossible, but they can also build stronger, lighter-weight parts, reduce material […]
Eric Felkel

Build resilience by monetizing value

Uncover the factors, technologies, and financial models that can help make a business more predictable and future-proof.

Unforeseen disruptions, market fluctuations, and macroeconomic issues. The last year alone has exposed the unpredictable nature of the market and supply chains. Even new competitors popping up from other industries — think Google competing with CNC machine providers, a pump OEM, or a water fixture manufacturing company — can make or break a business. Finding […]
Guneet Bedi

Tooling & Workholding: Patented considerations in High Torque tooling

The only retention knob designed to run the gamut on eliminating V-Flange CNC milling problems.

It is common knowledge in the CNC manufacturing community that if you use V-Flange tooling, you use retention knobs, which are the critical interface between the spindle and the toolholder and tool. Often considered nothing more than a bolt, the knob is actually a precision tool made to strict specifications and tolerances. While some machine-tool […]
Craig Fischer

June 2021

Solar Atmospheres

Solar Atmospheres takes advanced technical expertise and equipment and uses it to thermally treat parts in a vacuum environment – serving industries that include aerospace, automotive, defense, medical, and power generation.

Gears and other parts made from metals and metal alloys have to be heat-treated to ensure proper performance, and Solar Atmospheres was born out of that need to offer quality vacuum heat-treating services. “Generally speaking, we offer vacuum heat treating, which produces clean bright results with limited distortion on most alloys,” said Tim Steber, regional […]
Kenneth Carter

Case study: To seek out faster shaping

Forest City Gear is boldly going where no gear jobber has gone before, with the first Gleason GP300ES Gear Shaping Machine featuring a 40-percent faster cutter spindle speed.

The search for intelligent life on Mars took a big leap forward on February 18, 2021, when Perseverance, NASA’s latest Mars Rover, touched down on the surface of the Red Planet. Its mission? To seek signs of ancient life and collect rock and soil samples for possible return to Earth, as well as pave the […]
Udo Stolz

Technical diagnostics of a gear hobbing technological system on diagnostic signs of deviations of the tooth profile of gears

The proposed method of identifying the content of corrective and warning actions allows
for systematic identification of corrective actions to effectively improve the quality of cylindrical gears.

The article reveals the main provisions of technical diagnostics of a gear hobbing machine system with CNC on the diagnostic parameters of the profile of the sides of the teeth. The scheme of embedding diagnostic processes in the cycle of improving the quality of manufacture of gears. The developed scheme is universal and applicable to […]
DT Safarov, AG Kondrashov

Influence of manufacturing variations of spline couplings on gear root and contact stress

A simplified power-transfer system of gears and shafts connected through involute splines is used to study the influence of spline lead variations on gear-mesh behavior and load distribution on the gear teeth.

Involute splines are widely used in mechanical systems to connect power transmitting gears to their supporting shafts. These splines are as susceptible as gears to manufacturing variations, which change their loading pattern and may eventually lead to failures. The influence of manufacturing variations of spline teeth on performance and failure mechanisms of spline couplings is […]
Hareesh Kurup, Carlos Wink

May 2021


Using novel metal alloys and patented technologies that eliminate the need for time-consuming and expensive machining and post processing of parts, Amorphology produces gears and other components with alloys that have material advantages over steel and titanium.

When a robot arm is executing a delicate maneuver in the harsh vacuum of space, it’s imperative the gears necessary for success be created with high-tech alloys and precision engineering. Amorphology takes that directive very seriously and, in the company’s short history, has developed patented alloys and methods to design and manufacture gears with the […]
Kenneth Carter

Reduction of the tonality of gear noise by application of topography scattering for ground bevel gears

In the design of transmissions, the high demands on running and noise behavior are fulfilled by specific topography designs, therefore a compromise must be found between low gear excitation, sufficient load carrying capacity, and high efficiency.

The noise behavior of transmission is mainly caused by the excitation in the gear mesh. The standardized design and calculation methods for gears concentrate on the reduction of the excitation level. However, often the physical noise characteristics do not conform with the human noise perception. Thus, gear design rules and guidelines are required that are […]
Marcel Kasten, Christian Brecher, Christoph Lopenhaus, Dipl.-Ing. (BA) Andreas Lemmer, Dipl.-Ing. Werner Blase, Dr.-Ing. Rolf Schalaster

Gear forging opportunities

Taking care of any necessary forging equipment repairs, rebuilds, or remanufactures now ensures forgers will be ready for the economic rebound.

Forging has long been used to manufacture gears, particularly in the production of gear blanks, which often uses open-die forging, closed-die forging, and hot upset forging. Other gear forging processes include normalizing, gear shaving, grinding machining, turning machining, hobbing on shaper machines, and heat treatment. High-energy rate forging is also used to manufacture near- or […]
Del Williams

Load intensity distribution factor evaluation from strain gauges at the gear root

Presenting a methodology to measure gear root strain distribution, as well as an analytical method to convert the measurements into flank load distribution.

Strain gauges are commonly used to obtain the load intensity distribution on the flank of a gear mesh. The standard methodology consists in installing a set of gauges at the tooth root and measuring the strain distribution there. In order to get the load distribution on the flank, the strain data must be processed and […]
Alfredo Fernandez Sison, Jose Calvo Irisarri, Pedro Olalde Arce, Unai Gutierrez Santiago

April 2021

Machine Tooling Technology

With more than 30 years of experience, Machine Tooling Technology offers compatible parts and tooling for the keyseater industry.

As machine shops have modernized, many of them still rely on keyseater machines that are used to cut internal shapes and forms for large gears. Some keyseater machines still in operation are decades old, and, since a new one can cost upwards of $1 million, it’s essential to keep these used machines running. Although Machine […]
Kenneth Carter

Hob quality basics

Hob quality is critical to high-quality gear manufacturing, and this concept begins
with the purchase of certified, high-quality hobs that meet AGMA standards.

The quality of a hob directly affects the final quality of the gear it generates. AGMA has developed a standard covering the allowable tolerances for fine and coarse pitch hobs. This standard is ANSI/AGMA 1102-B13, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs, which is the latest revision of AGMA120.1. If there is a quality problem in the […]
Adam Gimpert

Perfect Pitch

A new fixture design minimizes runout and helps ensure greater accuracy for hard finishing and inspection.

Gear manufacturers are turning to workholding to help reduce costs without compromising quality. Pitch Line Fixtures, for example, can be used to provide a more precise relationship between the pinion/gear member datums and the gear teeth, thus reducing the amount of runout on those datums relative to the pitch diameter (pitch line) of the gear […]
Brian Baldeck, Ian Schickling

Predicting Gear Sliding Losses

Incorporating the effect of lubrication characteristics, gear geometry, surface finish, and operating conditions into an algorithm can accurately predict sliding losses over a range of operating conditions for a standard set of gears.

Gearbox efficiency is becoming increasingly important for vehicle manufacturers to help achieve their overall fuel savings goals. Enhancing gearbox efficiency is also critical in saving the up-front cost and overall unreliability of gearbox cooling. It is well known that at high power levels, for current low-speed gears, gear sliding losses dominate the overall gearbox losses. […]
Parviz Merati, John Bair, Carlos Wink, Farrukh Qureshi

March 2021

AIMS Metrology

AIMS Metrology is an original equipment manufacturer that builds its own CMM models, which, in turn, benefits its customers by providing a ‘one-stop shop’ and a CMM supply company.

When customers come to the experts at AIMS Metrology for their inspection and measurement requirements, they can count on one thing: The solution will be a team effort. “We attack every project  as a team,” said Mark Gearding, vice president and co-owner of AIMS. “It’s not just one person. We have a cross-trained group of […]
Kenneth Carter

Lubrication and its role in gear-failure analysis

It’s important to employ best practices in order to identify gearset problems before they fail.

When gears fail, it is most often due to fatigue and overloading. The most common form of distress and failure is actual breakage, but other modes of distress include surface fatigue known as pitting, normal and abnormal wear, and plastic flow. What distress and failure look like depends on the type of gear. Gears that […]
Lawrence Ludwig Jr., Mary Beckman

Selecting a worm gear lubricant

Viscosity, load, material compatibility, noise emissions, component life, and the recommended service temperature range of an application should all be considered prior to selecting a worm gear grease.

To compete in the marketplace, engineers across all industries are being tasked with increasing gearbox efficiency. Modern designs therefore must achieve high-power transfer without generating noise or excess heat. Gears have been pushed to design limits as they are required to run at higher speeds, under heavier loads, and for longer periods of time. Lubrication […]
Brian Kinkade

Power Skiving with integrated cutter resharpening

Power Skiving – a viable alternative to hobbing and broaching – is establishing new quality and cost benchmarks with integrated resharpening, which revolutionizes the manufacturing process and current tooling concepts.

Gear manufacturing by Power Skiving takes the traditional approach: After a cutter has reached its maximum wear, the operator changes the cutter, adjusts the cutter data, cuts the next workpiece, transfers it to the inspection room, waits for the first part inspection, and – if necessary – corrects the process by adjusting the machine parameters […]
Dr. Edgar Weppelmann

February 2021

Nordex Inc.

Nordex designs and produces fully integrated turnkey subsystems for medical, laboratory and industrial analytical instruments, factory automation, power transmission, robotics, defense and aerospace, and the semi-conductor OEM industries.

With a constantly changing industry, it’s of utmost importance to remain on the cutting edge of gear manufacturing and design, and Nordex has ridden the crest of that cutting-edge wave for decades. “We’re an engineering-driven company,” said Dan Agius Jr., CFO, General Counsel, and part owner of Nordex Inc. “We’re staffed with gear experts, and […]
Kenneth Carter

A new approach for the calculation of worm shaft deflection in worm and crossed helical gear drives

The available approaches for calculating the worm shaft deflection of worm gears compared with different calculation approaches and experimental tests show large deviations between existing calculation models and experimental results.

Worm gear drives are characterized by a simple design, which allows the realization of a high gear ratio within one stage. Furthermore, they are characterized by low vibration and noise behavior. For these reasons, they are used both as power transmissions and servo drives in various drive solutions. The allowable load and the lifetime of […]
Philipp Norgauer, Gerhard Keinprecht, Michael Hein, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karsten Stahl

The commonalities and differences between helical ‘low-tooth-count gears’ and ‘multiple-start worms’

Worm gearing that features line contact between tooth flanks of a worm gear and thread surfaces of a mating worm has a tremendous potential of application in today’s industry as it fits the requirements of high-power-density transmissions.

The article deals with geometrically-accurate worm gear pairs that feature line contact between tooth flanks of a worm gear and thread surfaces of a mating worm. Worm gearing of this kind can be viewed as a reduced case of  R — gearing (R — gearing was proposed by Prof. Radzevich in about 2008). At the […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

Multi-sensor metrology advances

New advancements in multi-sensor platforms combine the best features of vision and touch-probe gear inspection for maximum accuracy and speed.

Demand for accurate gears delivered on tight schedules is increasing. To keep pace, technology is continually advancing, enabling manufacturers to do more in the same amount of time. Add in competitive global market pressure, and the need for efficiency is more important than ever. To sustain profitability, companies need to keep up with market demands, […]
Greg Maisch

Documenting defects with greater accuracy

A digital visual inspection station can improve quality control and protect operators.

We are in an era where modern technology and automation are rapidly evolving and pushing out conventional hand-operated tools. The LED magnifying glass lamp is among the instruments being phased out of quality inspection operations and replaced with new high-definition digital visual inspection stations. Top gear makers, among many types of manufacturers and quality control […]
Fady Guirguis

January 2021

Gear Motions

Gear Motions specializes in supplying custom-cut and ground gears for OEMs across the globe and is capable of manufacturing all types of custom gears.

Even with a history that stretches across more than a century, it’s been an important part of the success of Gear Motions to continue to keep a solid eye on the future. “Our evolution has been dramatic at times and incremental at other times,” said Dean Burrows, president and CEO of Gear Motions. “We were […]
Kenneth Carter

Finding the ideal materials for gears

When designing and manufacturing gears, the materials used will depend on what type of gear is being made and how and where it will be used.

When designing an individual gear or a gear train, the choice of material will either be the primary factor on which the gear geometry is based or the gear performance will dictate the proper material selection. There are various raw materials that are commonly used in gear construction, and each one has a sweet spot […]
Brian Dengel

Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of a coated gear transmission system

The nonlinear dynamic characteristic of a DLC-coated gear transmission system is analyzed by using a numerical integration approach, and the effect of the coating elastic modulus on the dynamic response is investigated.

Coatings can significantly improve the load-carrying performance of a gear surface, but how they affect the vibration characteristic of the system is an urgent issue to be solved. Considering the nonlinear factors such as the variable mesh stiffness, friction, backlash, and transmission error, a six-degree-of-freedom spur gear transmission system with coatings is presented. Meanwhile, the […]
Yangyi Xiao, Liyang Fu, Jing Luo, Wankai Shi, Minglin Kang

Electrification in the automotive domain

Electric vehicles are set to disrupt automotive industry trends over the years ahead, which will have an effect on gear manufacturing.

In the modern world, there is no limit to the varieties of vehicles available in the market. From variations in engine types such as gas and electric to diverse drivetrains such as four-wheel or front-wheel drives, the options for automobiles are nearly endless, designed to fulfill ever-evolving consumer needs. Despite the diversity in terms of […]
Saloni Walimbe