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Endothermic atmospheres used for heat treating

During heat treatment, the part experiences different temperature regimes (Figure 1). Atmospheres are used in heat treating to protect the part from scaling at...

Water in oil-based quenchants can be problematic

The continuing retirement of “old hands” in the heat treatment industry has a growing generation of operators, supervisors, and engineers not knowing the severe...

Corrective actions for degraded quench oil

  In the past several columns, the various components of a quench oil have been described. Illustrations on how the various components, such as the...

Oil Quenchants – Understanding the Chemistry (Part III)

In the last two installments, the effects of base oil and additives on the performance of quench oil were described. In Part III, the...

Oil Quenchants – Understanding the Chemistry (Part II)

In this installment we will focus on base oils. Engineered quench oil is governed by the desired quenching performance; the necessary thermal and oxidative...

Oil Quenchants: Understanding the Chemistry (Part I)

Oil quenchants have been used extensively to harden steel in excess of 100 years. There are a wide variety of commercially available quenchants on...

Contamination of polymer quenchants in induction hardening

Induction hardening is a common and effective method of achieving a hard, wear-resistant surface without carburizing or nitriding. It is used extensively to harden...

The Effects of Microstructure and Hardenability on Distortion

Distortion is a worldwide problem in heat-treating, and has ramifications in part quality, additional manufacturing costs, and part performance. The cost implications are immense....

How Parts Cleaning Maximizes Heat Treatment

The demands of heat-treated goods are increasing. Not only do they have to meet property and straightness requirements, but they also have to meet...

Surface Engineering of Steels: Understanding Carburizing

Carburizing is the addition of carbon to the surface of low carbon steels. It is generally accomplished at temperatures between 850 - 1000°C. Once...

Heat Treatment of AISI 52100 For Bearing Applications

Bearings are crucial to our industrial life. They are found in virtually all industrial applications from wind bearings to aircraft engines. They are found...

Surface Engineering of Steels

The ASM Handbook defines surface engineering as: “treatment of the surface and near-surface regions of a material to allow the surface to perform...

Metallurgical Reasons for Grinding Cracks and Their Detection

Grinding is often a final machining step to achieve desired surface finish or final dimensions. Grinding is a high-energy process where a lot of...

Development of Residual Stresses During Machining and Workholding

There has been much discussion on the development of residual stresses and distortion during heat treatment. There is an entire conference series called “Quenching...

Applications of Hardenability

In the previous Hot Seat column, the concept of hardenability was discussed. It was determined that the sole contributor to hardness was carbon content,...

Hot Seat: Hardenability

Steel is a mixture of iron, carbon from 0.0 to 1.2 percent, and alloying elements. Carbon provides the hardness, and the alloying elements provide...

Evolution of Heat Treating Furnaces for Gears

It’s the mid ’70s, the phone rings, and I’m told that Ford wants to upgrade their heat treat equipment at the Rouge facility. Driving...

Thermochemical Surface Technologies Applicable to Gears

Hardening of the gear surfaces has a profound effect on their performance. Reduction in friction, enhancing rolling contact fatigue resistance, and other tribological properties...

Purchasing Tips

Purchasing an atmosphere or vacuum heat-treating system is much like purchasing a new car or a home — a lot of thought, research, and...

Energy Efficiency

“Hey, close the door — what do you think, we’re heating the neighborhood?” These are words I heard uttered by Mom and Dad over...
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