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December 2015

Company Profile: Penn Reels

A recognized best-in-class fishing reel product line, a dedicated pursuit of advanced gear technology, and an inspiring 80-year history has helped Penn Reels become a key player in the industry of one of America’s favorite pastimes.
 

The beginning of Penn Reels is not only a story of an American dream, but also a story of a fishing tackle manufacturer that revolutionized saltwater angling. It started in 1922 when Otto Henze, a 25-year-old machinist, moved from Germany to the United States and began working for the Ocean City Reels Company in Philadelphia. Ten […]
Molly J. Rogers

Advantages of Direct Gear Design For Automotive Polymer Gear Drives

Direct Gear Design, a development process where gear parameters are primary and tool parameters are secondary, maximizes performance of plastic gearing by compensating for polymer property limitations.
 

Invention of the gear-generating machining process that uses the gear rack shape tooling cutting edge (as shown in Figure 1) established basic principles of traditional gear design. Parameters of the tooling gear rack such as the profile (or pressure) angle, addendum, whole depth, and fillet radius proportions are standardized and used as input gear design […]
Thomas M. McNamara, Alexander Kapelevich

An Improved Load-Equalizing Means For a Multi-Flow Gear Train

A method for equal power sharing in planetary gearboxes is proposed based on the use of elastic absorbers of manufacturing errors.

  This paper relates to the load-equalizing capabilities of planetary gearboxes, and more generally, addresses the load-equalizing capabilities of multi-flow gear trains, that is, gear trains that feature two or more flows of transmitted power. Typically due to manufacturing errors, displacements under operating load, or other factors, planetary pinions share power disproportionately. Enhanced accuracy in […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

Actual Tooth Contact Analysis of Straight Bevel Gears

When measuring with coordinate measuring machines, a new proposed approach is utilized to capture deviations from spherical involute bevel gears; these deviations are then used in tooth contact analysis.

Straight bevel gears are the simplest type of bevel gears that transfer power between intersecting axes [1]. They are widely used in low-speed applications or static-loading conditions. Differential gears are one such application where the speed is very low and the load type is mainly static. There are still several traditional applications of straight bevel […]
Jui Chen, Dale K. Benedict, Glen Steyer, Haris Ligata, Mohsen Kolivand

November 2015

Machines Profile: Kennametal Extrude Hone

Kennametal Extrude Hone has grown from a manufacturer and seller of abrasive flow machining (AFM) machines to include electrochemical machining (ECM) and its thermal energy method (TEM), making it a world leader in these three core practices.

Kennametal Extrude Hone was founded more than 50 years ago in Irwin, Pennsylvania, as Extrude Hone Corp. by Lawrence Rhoades, an entrepreneur and inventor. After years of extensive research, Rhoades began manufacturing and selling abrasive flow machining (AFM) machines, and that was the company’s sole focus at that time. In 1974, Extrude Hone began looking […]
Anna Claire Howard

Services Profile: Raycar Gear & Machine Co.

What started with a purchase of a small general machining company in 1989, Raycar Gear & Machine Co. has since become a successful full-service manufacturer of precision gears and a driving force in the industry.

When owner Dan Schwartz purchased the machining company known at that time as Raycar Tool & Machine 26 years ago, he was immediately faced with challenges — a couple of antiquated machines, a small 2,500-square-foot building, and few customers. To increase his customer base, he decided to specialize in more than machined parts. With his […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Tooling Profile: Riten Industries

As a leading manufacturer of high-precision live and dead centers and face drivers, Riten Industries has unmatched experience, engineering expertise, and customer service, with all of its products made in the U.S.

Riten Industries has been a family business and manufacturer of workholding tools since 1933, but “Riten” has not always been the company name. In the 1960s, Riten was called Rigid, and according to Mitchell Kirby, vice president of manufacturing and an employee for 26 years, its namesake is an interesting tale that’s been handed down […]
Molly J. Rogers

October 2015

Company Profile: Bourn & Koch, Inc.

Bourn & Koch continues to combine the most well-known brand names in the history of industrial machining with customer-driven solutions and the industry’s latest technology.

Bourn & Koch was founded in 1975 when Larry Bourn & Loyd Koch, prior employed at Sundstrand Machine Tool, set out to fill a niche of remanufacturing and retrofitting machine tools and to build specialty machines not being addressed by other large machine tool builders. Throughout its 40-year history, Bourn & Koch has continuously strived […]
Molly J. Rogers

Customer Success Stories

Two gear manufacturing companies — Croix Gear & Machining in Wisconsin and Columbia Gear in Minnesota — benefited from purchasing Gleason machines in order to fill their needs for increasing capacity, capabilities, and technologies.

Technology Transformation at Croix Gear & Machining Croix Gear & Machining leverages Gleason’s total solutions package to exceed customer expectations for spiral bevel gear quality and delivery. When Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker criss-crossed his state earlier this year to pitch Wisconsinites on his ambitious “Blueprint for Prosperity” plan for tax relief and worker training, he […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Gear Tooth Root Stresses of a Very Heavily Loaded Gear Pair

In this case study, specialized contact analyses and finite element methods were used to study gear tooth stresses of the space shuttle orbiter’s body flap actuator gears.

For aerospace applications, there is a high premium on minimizing the mass of all components while meeting operational and safety requirements. Gears for space shuttle orbiter actuators were specified to meet safety factor requirements for fatigue life, yield, and ultimate load carrying capacity [1]. Analytical predictions of safety factors for gear teeth with respect to […]
Timothy L. Krantz, Dr. Robert F. Handschuh

Optimizing Innovation in Driveline Design Processes

Simulation technology is driving innovation in gear and drivetrain design fields with an approach that moves problem-solving earlier in the process.

In the driveline industry, innovation can only be achieved when the use of new or novel technologies or methods are applied to design and development goals. Innovation also means harnessing practical ways to support business goals and deliver higher quality products faster, more efficiently, and with a lower cost. While design and manufacturing methods improve […]
Dr. Michael F. Platten

Flame Hardening

Flame hardening is a viable, cost-efficient solution for heat treating difficult gear designs and for lower production volumes. Here, an overview on flame hardening, as well as spin hardening and robotic gear hardening, is discussed.

Heat treating gears increases their durability and strength, and there are many heat treating options to suit different applications. To achieve the best return on investment, factors that should be considered include production volume, gear or shaft design, and hardness pattern and depth specified for the parts. Also, determining the number of parts that will […]
Jackie Orr, Mark Sirrine

Effective Methods for Checking Grinding Quality

Grinding affects the performance of a gear component, therefore it’s important to optimize the grinding process and eliminate defective parts before final assembly.

Grinding is often the last process in the manufacture of high-quality, high-load-bearing gearbox components. High-load-bearing gears are hardened for greater strength and ground to reach tight dimensional tolerances. But too much heat from the grinding process can relax beneficial compressive stresses, soften a surface that should be hard, and, in the extreme, produce tensile stresses […]
Robert M. Fix

September 2015

Company Profile: Rave Gears & Machining

Rave Gears and Machining is committed to providing quality parts and on-time delivery at a fair price.

The story of Rave Gears and Machining in Seguin, Texas, is short and fascinating. Established in 2011, Rave Gears has built a brand-new world-class engineering and manufacturing facility from the ground up. Rave Gears has accomplished this goal by investing in state-of-the-art equipment and hiring experienced, talented, and dedicated people. Today, the company produces high-quality […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Precision Bevel Gears with Low Tooth Count

An analysis focused on the geometry and the kinematics of right-angle bevel gears with low tooth count shows that inequality of base pitches of the gear and mating pinion is the root cause of insufficient performance.

Right-angle bevel gears are a particular case of intersected-axis gearing (further Ia-gearing) with an arbitrary value of the shaft angle. Commonly, bevel gears with the base cone angle (Γb for the bevel gear and γb for the bevel pinion) larger than the root cone angle (Γf for the bevel gear and γf for the bevel […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

Case Study: Circle Gear and Machine Company and Pequea Machine Inc.

Two companies work together to bring the manufacturing process of gears and gear components back to the U.S. from overseas.

In a joint effort to bring manufacturing back to the U.S., also known as reshoring, a relationship was formed between gear manufacturer Circle Gear and Machine Company and agricultural machinery manufacturer Pequea Machine Inc. Today, both companies are reaping the rewards: Circle Gear has increased its capabilities and capacity, and Pequea is proud to market […]
Molly J. Rogers

Layout of the Gear Micro Geometry

A three-step methodology can be a successful approach to optimizing flank line and profile modifications.

The last phase in sizing a gear pair is to specify the flank line and profile modifications, also known as the micro geometry. To do so, it is first necessary to select the primary objective for which optimization has to be achieved: noise, service life, scuffing, micropitting, or efficiency. Certainly, it is not possible to […]
Dr. Ulrich Kissling

Inspection and Measuring on Threaded Tools

The measuring machine, ThreadCheck, offers precision for complex geometries, automation, seamless documentation, and production integration.

Increasing product varieties, shortening of production cycles, and a growing demand on quality are just a few of today’s many production requirements. Flexibility is also necessary, as well as cost-effective solutions for efficient processes, optimization of setup times, and measurement solutions for new tools, materials, and processing technologies. With the demand for thread-cutting tools increasing […]
Michael Stepke, Dr. Karin Steinmetzer

August 2015

Company Profile: New England Gear

Celebrating 20 years in the business of remanufacturing late-model CNC Fellows gear shapers, New England Gear attributes its success to excellent customer relationships, a wealth of technical knowledge, and superior standards.

It’s not often that you call a company, even a small one, and get the owner on the other end of the line. But when Gear Solutions called New England Gear to offer congratulations on its 20th anniversary this year, it was Jeff Barnes, founder and sole proprietor, who answered the phone. This personal relationship […]
Molly J. Rogers

A Comparison of Wrought Steel Gears and Surface – Densified Powder Metallurgy Gears

There is potential in using powder metallurgy transmission gears that match the performance and accuracy of machined gears when fatigue properties and dimensional precision capabilities are compared.

Automotive transmission gears are responsible for transmitting torque from the engine to the wheels. In the process of transferring torque, gear teeth are subjected to cyclic loading. The cyclic loading in turn translates into cyclic tooth bending stresses along the root fillet and cyclic contact stresses on the active tooth surfaces. Historically, high-quality wrought steel […]
Mike Scott, Rajesh Parameswaranand, Salvator Nigarura, Christian Dennert

Meeting More Demanding Requirements for Removing Burrs: Optimizing Deburring Processes with Innovative Solutions

Burrs and chips are unavoidable in virtually all manufacturing processes used for series production, and today, the removal of these remnants from the production process is an absolute must for high-quality, precision parts.

Whether parts are manufactured by means of machining, metal forming, or master forming, deburring usually doesn’t fall into one of the part manufacturer’s areas of core competence. Thus, the removal of these remnants from the production process is often still seen as a necessary evil that increases unit costs. However, due to ever-stricter requirements for […]
Doris Schulz

Make Powerful Partnerships at Gear Expo 2015

Don’t miss Gear Expo, the “Drive Technology Show” — it only happens once every two years. This event is the world’s only conference and expo designed exclusively for the gear industry and drive technology experts.

Here’s what’s in it for you and your team: • Attendees see firsthand 750,000 pounds of machinery and gear products — the latest technology on the market — and discuss trends in the industry with knowledgeable suppliers. • For three days, experts in design, manufacturing, application engineering, as well as gear buyers and manufacturers, will […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Reducing Gear Noise While Improving Performance

Gear noise reduction can be achieved through electrochemical machining, which is a process that accomplishes metal removal by dissolution of surface atoms without direct contact between the tool and workpiece material.

To protect human health and the environment, noise emission from road vehicles is limited by legislation. In Europe, essential noise limits continue to be defined by Directive 70/157/EEC and its numerous amendments. According to the Brussels-based advocacy organization Transport & Environment, traffic noise is one of the most widespread environmental problems in the European Union. […]
Bruno Boutantin

July 2015

Company Profile: Gleason Corporation

Gleason Corporation celebrates its 150th anniversary with eyes intently set on the future of gear manufacturing.

Business survival horror stories begin one of two ways. A company either bets the farm on the latest tech trend or conceitedly refuses to adapt to an evolving market. Success stories are written by companies who build solid foundations on middle ground — embracing the advantages and dismissing the pitfalls of both extremes. Rochester, New […]
Stephen Sisk

High Temperature Vacuum Carburizing Drives Alloy Development

With gear surfaces, a growing demand for greater fatigue resistance can only be achieved by specialized heat treatments. Vacuum carburizing — low pressure carburizing — is a process that can be used to apply hardness, wear resistance, and increased fatigue life in specific parts.

Vacuum carburizing (low pressure carburizing, or LPC) is a process used to impart hardness, wear resistance and increased fatigue life in such applications. LPC is a treatment in which the steel component absorbs carbon liberated from a hydrocarbon gas into its surface at a low process pressure of 12 torr or less. New advanced alloys […]
Bill Gornicki

Induction Hardening for Wind Turbine Bearing Rings

As installed capacity and component size continue to grow in the wind sector, induction hardening is a cost-and time-efficient method to meeting demand. As demand for gear rings and bearings increases, so will the need for more sophisticated induction hardening solutions.

It seems nothing  —  not even a worldwide financial crisis — can stop the rise of wind energy. The 2008-12 global recession did slow the sector’s growth — to the extent that 2013 resulted in the wind industry’s first-ever contraction (in terms of added capacity). But as figures from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) […]
Helmut Schulte

CASE STUDY: Cold Forming Technology, Inc., and West Michigan Spline, Inc.

Cold Forming Technology, Inc., and West Michigan Spline, Inc., chose to lead by example and show what happens when two similar companies opt for collaboration instead of competition.

Introduction John Donnelly, president of Cold Forming Technology, Inc., and Gary Hill, president and owner of West Michigan Spline, Inc., are known around the Rochester- and Lake Michigan-areas as collaborators in the spline rolling industry. However, getting to that point wasn’t easy. It took a great deal of trust building and a willingness to work […]
Anna Claire Howard

INSPECTION & METROLOGY: A Different Way to Look at Profile and Helix Inspection Results

The traditional inspection of involute gear profile and helix deviations results in plots of deviations from a perfect involute and from a perfect helix. While this is appropriate for gears with an unmodified profile or helix, it is not ideal for gears that have intentional modifications.

Introduction Elemental inspection of gears is commonly carried out with computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines. While these range from special purpose gear measuring machines with a precision rotary table to three-axis coordinate measuring machines (CMM) with software adapted for gear measurement, what these inspection machines have in common is they produce graphical output that shows […]
John Rinaldo

INSPECTION & METROLOGY: The Benefits of Using Tapered-Tooth Master Plugs (TMPs) with Spline Gauges

There is both a cost-effective and timesaving approach to evaluating the quality condition of a spline ring gage — the simple-to-use Tapered-Tooth Master Plug (TMP). This concept has been around for many years, but not everyone is aware of its benefits or how it works.

Eliminating unnecessary expenses is a very important factor in running a successful business. At first glance, it might seem unnecessary to purchase a gage that does not actually measure a component, but if you understand the true value in using tapered-tooth master plugs (TMPs) and how they assist the production process, then you can find […]
Brian Slone

TOOLING & WORKHOLDING: Large and Small Gear Processing Reaps Benefits from Modern Workholding Synergies

As demand for higher-quality precision gears continues to rise, so does the need for high-quality gear manufacturing machines that can get the job done and skilled machinists who can properly operate the equipment.

Gears — both large and small — have similar issues when it comes to manufacturing. Whether that means high volume and low mix or high mix and low volume, setup time and part quality remain constant. Over the past several years, great strides have been made with gear-manufacturing machines as the demand for more precision […]
Matt Panosh, Brad Evans

TOOLING & WORKHOLDING: Making the Most of G90s Advantages

G90 material can be used to replace carbide in some hobbing applications. It can also provide increased production rates, increased tool life, or a combination of both of these when replacing traditional HSS hobs.

In his article, “Uncover Hidden Potentials in Hobbing,” which appeared in the June 2014 issue of Gear Solutions, Dr. Friedrich Momper explained how G90 — a new tooling material from Gleason — closes the performance gap between HSS materials and tungsten carbide. He also describes how the utilization of the G90 material can save up […]
Tim Babbitt, Paul Lindquist

June 2015

Company Profile: Surface Technology, Inc.

Surface Technology, Inc. began as a small family business during the recession in the early 1970s. Deeply rooted in history and innovation, the company has evolved into a world leader in composite electroless coatings.
 

In the early ‘70s near the end of the Vietnam War, the U.S. was mired in a downward economic spiral. As unemployment and inflation rose, so did the nation’s dependence on foreign oil.  Emerging global competition in the metal industry triggered a steel crisis. The United States was in a recession. However, despite being surrounded […]
Anna Claire Howard

The Impact of Surface Condition and Lubricant on Gear Tooth Friction

Frictional losses in gear boxes transform into heat, which makes them significant to gear box designers and will result in a fuel efficiency reduction for the vehicle involved. This effort is to measure and document the comparative friction losses in a gear mesh due to gear tooth surface condition and lubricant.

The most exhaustive experimental study quantifying gear tooth friction is by Yoshizaki [1], in which spur gears with various geometries were operated in a power re-circulating test rig and frictional losses were measured. Various lubricants and additives were also evaluated and tooth surface finishes (Rmax) ranging from 0.5 to 4 μm were considered. In Britton […]
Lane Winkelmann, Suren Rao, Ph.D., Gary J. Sroka Ph.D., Aaron C. Isaacson

Flexible Automation Technology Enables Lean Production Processes at BJ-Gear

Since 2009, BJ-Gear in Denmark has used collaborative robots from Universal Robots to automate its production of gear wheels. This new type of robots have ushered in substantial cost savings on machinery, optimized work flows, and created a more varied and rewarding work environment for employees that now welcome their new “colleagues.”

When asked how they envision a robot, most people either think of huge, unwieldy robots working in fenced off areas in large factories. Or, they think of futuristic cyberbots mimicking human behavior. But somewhere in between these two scenarios lies a new emerging reality — a new class of robots, dubbed “collaborative robots” due to […]
Esben H. Ostergaard

Application of a Unique Anti-Wear Technology — Ion-Sulfurized Lubricating Gradient Material

Ion-sulfurized lubricating gradient material (LGM) is a state-of-the-art technology conferring excellent anti-friction and wear-resistant characteristics on metallic parts, including gears, splines, and bearings. In this article, the engineering characteristics of LGM technology are introduced and exemplary applications are presented.

History Of Ion-Sulfurized Lubricating Gradient Material (LGM) Technology In modern industry, large fraction of machinery components, including gears, splines, and bearings, continually fall out of service because of wear and wear-related damages, along with which there is tremendous loss in raw materials, labor, and energy. Besides wear damages, friction consumes huge power share and decreases […]
Hua Liu, Xinhui Zhang, Yifei Zhang, Gordon Wang

May 2015

Company Profile: Kowalski Heat Treating Company

Kowalski Heat Treating Company is a place where people work hard to play hard. You’ll learn about how the patriarch of the Kowalski family and his wife pioneered their own heat treating company while also raising a family of 18 children.

Successfully raising both a family and a small business is a difficult task, but that’s exactly what Robert Kowalski and his wife, Carole, did in 1975 when they started the Kowalski Heat Treating Company. After working for various commercial heat treating companies, Robert decided it was time to create his own startup heat treating company. […]
Anna Claire Howard

Molecular Decomposition Process = Electrochemical Assisted Precision Form Grinding

Super-finishing of forms required to generate geometry like that of the involute of a gear is a multi-step process where gear blanks are roughed, heat treated, and ground to precise tolerances allowing for additional stock removal to occur in another value added process to generate super-finishes to less than 1 Ra µin.  A solution that enables the rough and finish grinding to occur that produces super-finished surfaces to less than 1 Ra µin while maintaining precise geometries is Molecular Decomposition Process (MDP).

Introduction Molecular decomposition process is an electrochemical grinding process that has been refined to enable: – The removal of increased amount of material while maintaining workpiece temperature to within 1ºF. – Reduced mechanical force to the workpiece. – From roughing operations surface finishes achieved measure at 6 to 8 Ra µin. – Finishing operations are […]
Joseph DeAngelo

Forging: 101

When weighing metal forming options for use in gear manufacturing, consider the processes, applications, and benefits of open die and rolled ring forging.

Introduction PeripWhen buyers must select a process and supplier for the production of a critical metal component, they face an enormous array of possible alternatives. Many metalworking processes are available, each offering a unique set of capabilities, costs and advantages. The forging process is ideally suited to many part applications; however, some buyers may be […]
Scot Forge

GrindTalk: MIRA ICE – Cooler Grinding for Large Gears

Developed for form grinding of gears, BURKA-KOSMOS and TYROLIT combine strengths to develop the new force in grinding technology, MIRA ICE, to help gear manufacturers significantly improve their processes.

Introduction PeripGear tooth profile grinding has traditionally been thought of as a slow process. Initially developed as a discontinuous generating process, a coarse pitch workpiece grind cycle time was measured in days rather than hours, minutes, and seconds. The development of discontinuous profile grinding allowed the complete left flank and right flank profiles to be […]
Dennis Brown, Steve Claessens, David Harroun

April 2015

Company Profile: Brevini Gear Systems

Brevini Gear Systems, otherwise known as Brevini Wind USA, is a major contender in the ring of custom gear manufacturing. Although they still participate in the wind industry, their focus is serving the precision custom gear and gearbox market.

Brevini Power Transmissions began in 1960 in Reggio Emilia, Italy, by the three Brevini brothers—Lucciano, Renato, and Corrado. In 1964, Renato engineered, produced, and successfully tested his first gearbox. This development would later propel the three brothers into the planetary gear business. The 1980s were a time of growth for Brevini. Following the death of […]
Anna Claire Howard

Slim Profile Peripheral Cutting Tool Using Stick Blades

Peripheral cutter heads are utilized to machine bevel and cylindrical gears and basic milling operations on universal mills or five-axis machines. However, in the new cutter system discussed below, all other surfaces can be made with open tolerances.

Introduction Peripheral cutter heads are used for the machining of cylindrical and bevel gears as well as for general milling operations on universal mills or five axis machines. Most peripheral milling cutters are solid cutters, consisting of one piece of mostly high-speed steel. Other peripheral cutter designs utilize carbide inserts, which are mounted or brazed […]
Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld

If Necessity is the Mother of Invention, Customer Need is the Impetus for Design Evolution

Plato once wrote that necessity is the mother of invention. In the realm of workholding for gear manufacturing industry, this means innovation is the basis for constant improvement and concept evaluation.

Good quotations can sum up the jewels of life’s wisdom. They often come from people with significant and prolific accomplishments that impact our collective history and culture.  Even in the manufacturing world concepts from quotes and proverbs get incorporated into the fabric of our thinking and methods. The phrase “Necessity is the Mother of Invention” […]
Ann Pettibone

Influence of Central Members Radial Support Stiffness on Load Sharing Characteristics of Compound Planetary Gearsets

In this study, a non-linear dynamics model of Ravigneaux compound planetary gearsets which adopts the intermediate floating component, is set up based on concentration parameter. Reducing the radial support stiffness of the central members helps improve the load sharing performance of the system.
 

Abstract In this study, a non-linear dynamics model of Ravigneaux compound planetary gearsets which adopts the intermediate floating component is set up based on concentration parameter.  By considering the position errors and eccentric errors, the dynamic load sharing factors of the gearsets are calculated. The relationship between central members radial support stiffness and the dynamic […]
Shijing Wu, Zeming Peng

March 2015

Company Profile: Lubrication Engineers, Inc.

What was originally founded by three salesmen looking to provide a superior lubricant to the manufacturing industry has grown into a successful, wide-reaching business with customers and influence all over the world.

In 1951, three men took a risk. They left the company they worked for behind and ventured out on their own to provide the clients and industry they served with a superior lubrication product. Now, more than 60 years later, their legacy lives on at Lubrication Engineers, Inc. In the early years, the company’s products […]
Anna Claire Howard

The Efficiency of a Simple Spur Gearbox — Thermally Coupled Lubrication Model

This paper discusses how efficient a simple dip-lubricated gearbox is in a thermally coupled lubrication model, which includes elastohydrodynamic (EHL) friction losses in gear teeth contacts as well as bearing, seal, and churning losses.

Introduction The efficiency of drivetrain components is quickly becoming a significant research area pushed by the intensifying quest for improved fuel economy in automotive vehicles. Emission-controlling regulations are becoming stricter, owing mainly to environmental issues, such as air contamination, but also due to the depletion of oil deposits and the resulting high fuel prices.  Pursuing […]
Frances E. Lockwood, Anant Kolekar, Adam E. Sworski, Andrew V. Olver, Athanasios Christodoulias, Dr. Amir Kadiric

Machine Involute Splines and Serrations with Rotary Broach Tools

Rotary broaching is not just for machining hexagon holes in screws. Here, you’ll learn more about the new product innovations and advanced techniques that continue to shape the broaching industry today.

Of the many ways to machine a form suitable for a gear, rotary broaching is not often the first considered. Precision grinding, broaching, EDM, and hobbing all have advantages in various features. Yet, innovation in rotary broaching tools is still alive and should be considered for various forms including small involute splines and serrations. Rotary […]
Peter Bagwell

February 2015

Company Profile: United Tool Supply Company

It has been one year since United Tool Supply Company’s founder and president Rusty Young passed away, and his son, Jeff Young has since taken over the family business. A lot has changed throughout the past year, and although the family and company have been faced with great adversity, both overcame those obstacles and are striving to preserve and build on Rusty’s legacy within this industry.

Rusty Young was a gear head, a risk taker and a successful entrepreneur.  Sure, he didn’t fall in love with gears right away, but after a couple failed business endeavors—including one that had him driving down to Florida and back to Ohio to deliver fresh seafood and another involving selling those quarter-operated pool tables you […]
Anna Claire Howard

Involute Spiral Face Couplings and Gears: Design Approach and Manufacturing Technique

By presenting spiral face gears with an involute tooth line and an identical tooth profile in the normal section at any given radius, two applications are made possible for such face gears.

Introduction Face gears typically have a straight or skewed tooth line and varying tooth profile in normal cross section at different radii from major to minor diameter. These face gears are engaged with spur or helical involute pinions at intersecting or crossed axes. This paper presents spiral face gears with an involute tooth line and […]
Alexander Kapelevich, Stephen D. Korosec

What do ZOLLER and a simple gear have in common? Both are proven in use and high efficiency.

By combining image-processing technology with one probe and six CNC-controlled axes, ZOLLER is able to sucessfully execute hob measurements without any distortions for its customers.

Introduction: Gears have existed for over 2000 years and are an indispensable part of today's technology. Whether in the car, in a pinwheel, or a movement – a gear is used in many ways. In order to achieve perfect gearing, maximum efficiency, and maximum power, gears must be manufactured in a very precise manner with […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

The Convergence of Gear Metrology and 3-D Measuring Technology: The Slow Evolution

While there has been a gradual convergence of generative gear metrology and 3-D or CMM type measurements, significant differences remain. This article explores the historical perspective and outlines the current technology.

Ever since the first CNC generative gear measuring systems for parallel axis gears were introduced to the marketplace in the late 1970s, efforts have been made to utilize coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) to check gears. Why not? After all, CMMs have three axes of measurement and can measure geometric shapes. Gears are geometric shapes, right? […]
Chris Pumm, Dwight Smith

January 2015

Company Profile: Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc.

From the ashes of Fellows Corporation rose Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc., which has been serving companies and people in need of gear shaping services and machine repair since its inception in 2002.

As people embark on new adventures in 2015, many are met with the frustration of sticking to their resolutions. Some people may want to lose some weight before spring arrives, and there may be others who hope to be more frugal with their annual expenses. Then, there are those who hope to improve on their […]
Anna Claire Howard

Application of ICME to Optimize Metallurgy and Improve Performance of Carburizable Steels

QuesTek Innovations LLC has successfully designed and developed four new steels that can be used in gearing applications, two of which have been implemented in demanding gear and bearing applications in ground and aerospace military, commercial aerospace, high-performance racing, oil and gas, and other industries

Introduction QuesTek Innovations LLC  (“QuesTek”) of  Evanston,  IL  uses  its  proprietary  Materials  by  Design® expertise and technology in conjunction with its ICME-based methodologies to rapidly design, develop and  qualify  advanced  alloys  into  demanding  applications. Accelerating the historically slow  and expensive materials design and development process, QuesTek’s approach integrates extensive thermodynamic and kinetic databases with advanced […]
Kerem Taskin, QuesTek Innovations LLC, Dave Snyder, Clay Houser, Aziz Asphahani, Jason Sebastian, Jeff Grabowski

Optimization of Gear Tooth Contact by Helix Angle Modification

This paper discusses software that automatically generates a 3-D meshed finite element model of a helical gear set, which does not require the gear designer to have a  knowledge of finite element analysis.

Introduction Gears that are smaller, cheaper, and equipped with more efficient power transmission are the ongoing objective of gear designers. A significant issue in the design of helical gears is the substantial effect of tooth twisting under load due to torsional and bending deflections of the gears and associated shafts [1]. The elastic deformation experienced […]
University of Wollongong, R.T. Wheway, PhD Engineering, R.J. Davey, Stuart Hipsley
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