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December 2007

Company Profile: Barit International Corp.

With expertise in both gear manufacturing and the tools required to make them, this company places a premium on delivering quality to its customers.

It’s the story of two men who met years ago in their home country of Russia—then the Soviet Union—and eventually joined forces to build a successful company in the United States. The company? Barit International. And the men? “Alex Polevoy and I worked together for a short time at a gear engineering and manufacturing company […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Direct Design for High-Performance Gear Transmissions

For demanding applications where custom gearing is required, the Direct Gear Design method may be just the approach you’re looking for. This article presents an in—depth explanation of this exciting process.

This paper presents a unique methodology for designing gears to enhance strength and life while allowing size and wear reduction. This new approach, trade named Direct Gear Design (DGD), optimizes the gear geometry to impart superior drive performance versus traditional gear design methods. This paper explains this alternative approach and demonstrates its effectiveness for high […]
Alexander Kapelevich

Straight Bevel Gears on Phoenix Machines Using Coniflex Tools

A world-renowned expert on bevel gearing who is with The Gleason Works, the author describes an exciting advance in the manufacture of straight bevel gears.

Manufacturing of straight bevel gears was in the past only possible on specially dedicated mechanical machines. Such machines are by nature difficult to set up, with limited ability to precisely repeat the setup. Mechanical machine setup has been historically slow and time consuming. New developments allow the use of the straight bevel gear cutting system […]
Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld

The Team Approach to Precision Plastic Gearing

When should plastic gears be used? What's the optimum design and manufacturing approach? Which materials work best in what applications? Ticona has the answers…

Since antiquity, gears and gear systems have constantly been developed and improved. This continuing process includes the evolution of plastic gears, which started out as a curiosity 60 years ago and today are an industrial mainstay. Found initially in many small applications, plastic gears are now found in a variety of new, larger, and higher–power […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

November 2007

Company Profile: American Gear, Inc.

When everything fits perfectly, a gearbox hums. So does this company, where all of the professional pieces have fallen into place.

When Larry Brylski first asked his stepson, Greg Scott, if he and his wife were interested in joining the family company, they weren’t sure whether he was kidding around or not. They already had jobs, after all—he was writing software for Musco Sports Lighting, and she worked as controller for a cabinet company—but when he […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Company Profile: Aerocom Industries, Inc.

Revamped, recharged, and relocated, this Longmont, Colorado-based company is poised to finally reach its true potential as a premier aerospace and commercial supplier.

Sometimes the name says it all. Such is the case with Aerocom Industries, with “Aero” referring to the aircraft/aerospace (AS9100 certified) side of the business, and “Com” (ISO 9001 certified) to its commercial pursuits. “Historically you’ll find that businesses in this industry are either involved in aerospace or industrial applications,” says Tom Lang, the company’s […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

October 2007

Company Profile: Machine Tool Builders, Inc.

Over the past 12 years this company has experienced steady growth, reinvesting its proceeds internally to become a remarkably agile rebuilder, retrofitter, and software designer.

Whether it be in your personal or professional life, sometimes you’ve got to follow your instincts. You can gamble and lose everything, or you just might win—and win big. That’s the position Ken Flowers was in 12 years ago, in 1995, when he found himself with an opportunity to embark on a whole new career. […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

A Solid State of Affairs

This article explains how a solid—state sensor can be used to monitor the viscosity of lubricants in your operation's fixed assets, leading to longer gearbox life.

Testing for the Evaluation of the Oils Lubricants are essential in maintaining the condition of fixed or mobile assets. Any degradation in the lubricant’s properties impairs its ability to protect the equipments’ dynamic components. By having the ability to monitor oil condition in real time and on equipment, the user can change the oil at […]
Kerem Durdag

Surface Hardening: Hard Turning or Grinding?

In order to determine which produces the best results, a detailed comparison is presented here to help you make the right decisions between these finishing processes.

Hard turning and grinding are competing finishing processes for the manufacture of precision mechanical components such as bearings, gears, cams, etc. Surface hardening at gentle machining conditions has often been reported and is attributed to strain/strain rate hardening and size effect. However, some studies have reported surface softening in the near surface of components by […]
A.W. Warren, Y.B. Guo

Heat Treating Heavy-Duty Gears

Allow "The Heat Treat Doctor" and his colleague to take you on a tour of the heat-treating processes you need to understand in order to achieve your gear manufacturing goals.

Whether required to pace the movement of a precision watch or a giant wind turbine, gears play an essential role in the performance of the products that we rely on in our everyday lives. Gears fall into two general categories: motion-carrying and power transmission. Motion-carrying gears are generally non-ferrous or non-metals such as plastic, while […]
Gerald D. Lindell, Daniel H. Herring

Synthetic Lubricants for Real Results

DOW Chemical knows its lubricants, and here provides an analysis of why PAGs are rising to the top of the synthetic market—especially in gearbox applications.

For centuries lubricants have been utilized as a way to reduce friction and wear on moving parts. In 2005, approximately 40 million tons of lubricants were produced globally by the industry [1]. While natural mineral oil-based fluids represent the majority of the market demand, many technological advances in equipment and machinery would not be possible […]
Daryl Beatty, Martin Greaves

Estimating Gear Fatigue Life

Using the strength-life theory can help avoid gear fatigue failure, and the resulting disruption of whole manufacturing systems.

Fatigue failure of gears can lead to the catastrophic failure of equipment, taking into account that gears are important elements in the power transmission systems of many modern machines. Because of this, effective procedures and information to evaluate the load capacity and useful life of gears are needed by specialists in several fields of engineering […]
Dr. Gonzalo Gonzalez Rey, R. José Garcia Martin, P. Frechilla Fernández

September 2007

Company Profile: First Gear Engineering & Technology, Inc.

OEMs seeking a supplier who is dedicated to quality gearing and excellent customer service should race to contact this company.

Considering his background, it’s easy to see how Greg Leffler came to appreciate the finer points of manufacturing precision gearing. “My dad had a race shop, and I grew up helping him build engines and chassis for sprint and midget cars,” he says, “so I’ve always been interested in the mechanical side of things.” So […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Planetary Gear Parametric Instability

Tooth mesh contact conditions can result in parametric instability in planetary gears. The following technical article explores the causes, and discusses the cures.

Parametric instability is investigated for planetary gears where the fluctuating stiffness results from the changing contact conditions at the multiple tooth meshes. The time-varying mesh stiffnesses of the sun-planet and ring-planet meshes are modeled as rectangular waveforms with different contact ratios and mesh phasing. The operating conditions leading to parametric instability are analytically identified. Using […]
J. Lin

Face-off: Face Hobbing vs. Face Milling

Which process is best for you? Depends on the application. Read on for an in-depth examination of the pros and cons of each.

Less than 10 years ago the selection of machinery was a system decision; presently continuous indexing (face hobbing) and single indexing (face milling) are unlimitedly available to the user.The continuous indexing method, referred to as “face hobbing” (FH), caused a small revolution in North America a few years ago, in conjunction with dry-cutting. Until then, […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Time to Shift Gears on Heat Treating?

For an in-depth examination of the current state of the heat-treating industry, who better to consult than a fourth-generation industry professional? Read on for a gear-centric review.

How many times have you heard this conversation? Production manager: “Where’s the 72-piece bevel gear order that should be at grind right now?”Purchasing agent: “It’s still at the heat treater.”Production manager: “When is it coming back?”Purchasing agent: “Not sure, they can’t give us an exact time.” The production manager then storms off to the grinding […]
Peter Hushek

Case Study: Butler Gear/Cosen Saws

Even when it comes to something like cutting bar stock, investing in the latest equipment can increase productivity and save you time—which easily translates to your bottom line!

Like links in a chain, every aspect of your manufacturing process is connected, and if one of them fails or isn’t performing up to your requirements, then you’re not getting the full return on the remainder of your capital investments. This is especially true if the piece of equipment is found early in the production […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

August 2007

Company Profile: Oliver Gear

For more than a century this company has worked to build a solid reputation based on innovation, excellent customer service, and a commitment to quality.

Although Oliver Gear is celebrating its 100th anniversary this year—it was incorporated in 1907 as a gear-manufacturing company—it’s actually much older, having been founded as a machine shop by A.F. Oliver in 1892. Would he recognize the company today? “I think he’d be surprised by how much we’ve grown,” according to Michael Barron, vice president […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Turbo – Abrasive Machining for Edge and Surface Finishing

In addition to mechanical deburring, turbo-abrasive machining provides benefits including isotropic surfaces, improved profiles, and beneficial compressive stress.

Turbo-Abrasive Machining [TAM] is a mechanical deburring and finishing method originally developed to automate edge finishing procedures on complex rotationally oriented and symmetrical aerospace engine components. Since its inception this method of utilizing fluidized abrasive materials has facilitated significant reductions in the amount of manual intervention required to deburr large components. Additionally, the process has […]
Michael Massarsky, Ph.D., David A. Davidson

Bending Fatigue of Surface Densified Gears

A technical paper discussing the effect of root densification depth and tooth loading mode on fatigue life.

Surface densified powder metal gears and conventional wrought steel gears were tested using a pulsator and a back-to-back gear tester to develop bending fatigue data. Two types of powder metal spur gears (wheel and pinion) were manufactured by pressing and sintering followed by surface densification using the DensiForm® process. Reference wrought steel (AISI 8620) gears […]
Juan R. L. Trasorras, Rajesh Parameswaranand, Salvator Nigarura

July 2007

Company Profile: Iosso Metal Processes

A cutting-tool salesman saw a need and applied his academic training as a chemist to develop a new coating, resulting in a wealth of benefits to his company's customers.

While working as a sales manager for a cutting-tool company, Richard C. Iosso found himself intrigued by the thought of somehow making the edges stay sharp longer. An academically trained chemist, he began developing and testing different compounds on his own time at home, eventually arriving at a chromium-based alloy coating that, when applied to […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Oil Quenching Technologies For Gears

In order to gain the benefits of oil quenching, you must understand all of the process variables involved. In the following, two heat—treat professionals share their expertise.

Oil quenching is a logical choice for gears. Atmosphere and vacuum carburizing carbonitriding of gears followed by oil quenching is a popular choice among manufacturers to achieve consistent mechanical and metallurgical properties and predictable distortion patterns. The reason oil quenching is so popular is due to its excellent performance results and stability over a broad […]
Daniel H. Herring, Steven D. Balme

Diagnostic Tool Helps Develop Profile for Induction Hardening Process

A high-speed infrared camera with software to calibrate, freeze and record temperatures after each heat cycle is a diagnostic tool developing a process for profile hardening gears. The method can eliminate costly and most often destructive examination.

Combining process monitoring and a diagnostic tool to develop a process for contour (profile) hardening gear teeth or tooth-like objects on parts having gear-like geometry can eliminate costly and most often destructive quality checks. The process tool is an extension of the dual pulse induction hardening (DPIH) process.A high-value gear requires a hard wear-resistant surface […]
Daniel H. Herring, Steven D. Balme

Superior Bearings for Extruder Gearboxes

Recent improvements have made spherical roller thrust bearings superior alternatives to the traditional bearing types used in output shaft applications. Here's how—and why.

Demand for plastic components and materials in industrial and consumer applications is growing rapidly, and in all geographic regions. As demand increases, original-equipment manufacturers and their end-user customers are seeking new ways to improve the output and productivity of plastic extruder machines and extruder gearboxes. One potential solution involves greater use of spherical roller thrust […]
David Martin

June 2007

Company Profile: Hydra-Lock Corporation

As the originator of hydraulic work- and tool-holding devices, this company has spent the past 60 years earning a reputation for creativity, innovation, and quality.

According to Merriam-Webster innovation is defined as a new idea, method, or device, so a reference to the Hydra-Lock Corporation certainly wouldn’t be out of place. Founded as the result of a patent awarded for the first in its line of hydraulically expanding arbors and chucks, it has continued developing new work- and tool-holding designs […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Surface Enhancement: The Mikronite Process

Not only can this process make your gears stronger and longer lasting it can be applied to cutting tools for major savings in operating costs.

Friction and wear can be found in every moving object, from the cars we drive to the lifesaving devices used to keep our blood pumping. When the efficiencies of these machines fall short of their theoretical design, it falls upon coatings and surface treatments to make up the difference. In manufacturing they are used to […]
Daniel Manning

Gaining the Edge in CBN Tool Performance

EMG edge preparation, developed by Conicity Technologies, can be applied to nearly any material to improve the performance of a wide variety of cutting tools.

Users of “superhard” materials such as CBN (cubic boron nitride) in cutting tools commonly believe that chamfering—also known as applying a “T-Land” or “K-Land”—is necessary for extending tool life. For example, an article published a few years ago in Modern Machine Shop states that “to protect the cutting edge from chipping, a T-Land or K-Land […]
William Shaffer

Coating Applications for Spur Gears

The following paper describes details concerning the increased surface fatigue lives of spur gears by application of a coating.

IntroductionThe power density of a gearbox is an important consideration for many applications and is especially important for gearboxes used on aircraft. One factor that limits gearbox power density is the need to transmit power for the required number of cycles while avoiding gear surface fatigue failure (micropitting, pitting, or spalling). Effective and economical methods […]
Dennis P. Townsend, Timothy L. Krantz, Bruce D. Hansen, Clark V. Cooper

Improving Energy Efficiency with the Proper Gear Oils

According to Klüber Lubrication, OEMs who choose the right gear oil will realize lower wear rates and operating temperatures, and greater energy efficiency.

Many factors come into play when selecting gear oils, including the projected life of a gearbox, its seals, and the desired performance of the gearbox within an application. Typically, end users rely on their OEMs to determine the best gear oil, so it is important for OEMs to value gear oil as a machine element […]
Mark Crombie

May 2007

Company Profile: Mabry Castings Ltd.

With a history of dedication to service & quality, this company is poised to provide gear manufacturers with the castings they need to ensure success.

When you’re a foundry located in Beaumont, Texas, it’s to be expected that you’ll pursue contracts with the petrochemical industry. But when you’ve been around for 82 years and have seen other businesses suffer for concentrating on a single industry, you learn the importance of diversification. “And that’s exactly what we’ve done,” says Jeff Freeman, […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Comparing Castings and Forgings

When designing large structural components it's critical to make an informed decision between castings and forgings. The following paper by Rexnord provides an in-depth examination.

Material selection is one of the most crucial decisions made in the design, manufacture, and application of large structural components. Material selection naturally influences the entire performance of the design, and thus it is critical that informed decisions are made during the design stage. Steel castings and steel forgings are two alternatives for large structural […]
Tim Zwirlein

New Links in the Production Chain

As part of the Kapp Group, Niles has designed machines that decrease the cost per piece while increasing the quality of the finished parts.

The form grinding process has dramatically increased the efficiency of gear grinding machines, and consequently the productivity of gear shops. New tools and advanced CNC controls facilitate faster cycle times; this pushes the process closer to its limits, however. Progress is made in small steps, but only with less stable process conditions as a result. […]
Sascha Ungewiss, Bill Miller

A Novel Hob Design for Precision Involute Gears Part II

The following paper outlines the development of a new precision gear hob design for machining involute gears on conventional gear-hobbing machines.

Abstract This paper is aimed at the development of a novel design of precision gear hob for the machining of involute gears on a conventional gear-hobbing machine. The reported research is based on the use of fundamental results obtained in analytical mechanics of gearing. For solving the problem, both the descriptive-geometry-based methods (further DGB-methods) together […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

April 2007

Company Profile: American Gear & Engineering, Inc.

Some gear manufacturing companies have built their reputation over the course of many generations, but this one has done so in little more than two decades.

In a perfect pairing of academic training and hands-on experience, two men came together 22 years ago and launched a company called American Gear & Engineering, Inc., in Westland, Michigan. “I had worked my way through school as a mechanic at a trucking company, and after I’d earned my degree in economics from Albion College […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Workholding Made Simple

Overly complicated designs can sometimes prove detrimental, especially when it comes to workholding devices. The following describes how simplicity can lead to better outcomes.

In the past, generations lived from cradle to grave with little noticeable difference in lifestyle. Today, as you well know, we live in a spectacularly different world. If you buy the latest, fastest, and most powerful computer you can, in just a few years you will have trouble surfing the Web with it. Not that […]
David A. Stokely

Taking Hold with Hydraulics

Hydra-Lock has a long history of manufacturing custom-designed hydraulic workholding and toolholding devices that are constantly evolving to meet its customer's needs.

For over 60 years Hydra-Lock Corporation has been the leader in hydraulic work and tool holding. We are the originators of hydraulic holding and have continuously developed new and innovative hydraulic holding concepts. It all started with our Class “A” style of arbors and chucks. This solid steel construction is the most rigid of our […]
Robert Laube, Sean Cresent

A Novel Hob Design for Precision Involute Gears Part I

The following paper outlines the development of a new precision gear hob design for machining involute gears on conventional gear-hobbing machines.

Abstract This paper is aimed at the development of a novel design of precision gear hob for the machining of involute gears on a conventional gear-hobbing machine. The reported research is based on the use of fundamental results obtained in analytical mechanics of gearing. For solving the problem, both the descriptive-geometry-based methods (further DGB-methods) together […]
Dr. Stephen P. Radzevich Ph.D., Dr. (Eng) Sci.

March 2007

Company Profile: Butler Gear

Everyone encounters obstacles, but the real challenge is in whether you cave in or carry on. This profile tells the story of a man who chose the latter—time and again.

Hilton Treuden was not a man who allowed a setback to get him down for long. When one road ended, he simply forged a new course of his own. Strangely enough, the first obstacle he encountered actually involved a road. “He’d started a greenhouse operation in Milwaukee straight out of high school, selling plants and […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Determining Gear Efficiency

By analyzing certain parameters, the authors present an original method for determining the efficiency of gears.

Abstract: This paper presents an original method for determining the efficiency of the gear. The originality of this method relies on the eliminated friction modulus. In the following pages we analyze the influence of a few parameters concerning gear efficiency. These parameters are: z1—the number of teeth for the primary wheel of gear; z2—the number […]
Narcisa Popescu, Florian Ion Petrescu, Relly Victoria Petrescu

The Art and Science of Broaching

To truly understand the benefits of broaching it's important to take many things into consideration, including the various methods, materials, and machines involved.

Broaching is one of the most productive and precise metal-cutting operations performed today. It’s also one of the most misunderstood. Broaching resembles planing or shaping, in that the broach tool presents a sharp cutting edge to the workpiece and moves across it, removing a predetermined amount of material. What primarily distinguishes broaching from other metal-cutting […]
Chris Van De Motter

Maximizing Gearbox Performance

By choosing the proper lubricant, gearbox performance is improved. Read on to learn about ExxonMobil's special formulation for gearbox applications.

Introduction: Gearboxes are one of the most widely used types of industrial equipment in the world. They are used as vital power transmission sources for nearly every kind of business operating in the broader industrial market sector. Today, as industrial gearbox applications continue to become more advanced, manufacturers are responding by producing an increasingly wide […]
Tim Nadasdi, Ph.D., Jeff Biamonte

CASE STUDY: Advent Tool & Manufacturing Inc.

The following case study describes the development of an involute spline form milling tool for prototype and production applications in standard CNC milling machines.

  Well known for its specialization in indexable and solid carbide thread and form milling tools, Advent Tool and Manufacturing has developed an involute spline form milling tool for prototype and production applications for use in standard CNC milling machines. Utilizing our patented insert locking and locating system on a standard shell threadmilling platform, James […]
Ross Wegryn-Jones

February 2007

Company Profile: Riverside Spline & Gear, Inc.

More than four decades after their father founded the company, three siblings are continuing the legacy of a true American success story.

Born in Tilbury, Ontario, his mother sent him to the United States at 17, hoping he’d have a better life there. He became a U.S. citizen, and a year later that bond was tested when he was sent to fight for his new country in World War II. He traveled throughout Europe, managing to survive […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Acoustic Properties of Industrial Machinery: Part II

The manufacturing environment can be a fairly noisy place, and these sounds can both cause and signal problems. The following provides a greater understanding of this issue.

In the early 1970s the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) generated more awareness, concern, and a need to control industrial noise (sound levels). This in turn created a need to advance technical knowledge on industrial product sound generation and to set sound standards on all types of equipment. However, the complexity of the subject […]
Jules DeBaecke, Richard Schunck, Bill Bradley

New Technologies in Analytical CNC Gear Inspection

Both hardware and software have improved drastically in recent years, leading to inspection machines that are more accurate and versatile than ever before.

The value of analytical gear measurement grows as advances in technology allow gears to be measured in ways that help diagnose complex manufacturing problems. Is it enough to measure just index, helix (lead), and involute profile on a gear? Manufacturing engineers want information to help them determine why these three key gear attributes are not […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Gear Inspection: Troubleshooting Tips

You inspect your gears to make sure you're producing the best product you possibly can. Should you detect a problem, this checklist will help you quickly determine the source.

In the June 2005 issue of Gear Solutions we presented an article titled “An Elementary Guide to Gear Inspection,” which was followed by “A New Standard in Gear Inspection” in October. Then, in the February 2006 issue, “Guarding Against Gearing Deviations” was published. These articles can be downloaded from the magazine’s Web site [www.gearsolutions.com]. In […]
Dennis Gimpert

January 2007

Company Profile: ANCA

Two men built an Australian company that's become a global powerhouse. This profile tells the story of a manufacturer you need to know about.

In the early seventies, two engineers met while working for a government ordnance factory in Australia. Although one had an academic background, and the other had been more involved in the technical side of engineering, they found that their professional interests meshed, and they decided to become the first Australian manufacturer of CNC controls. After […]
Gear Solutions Magazine

Acoustic Properties of Industrial Machinery: Part I

The manufacturing environment can be a fairly noisy place, and these sounds can both cause and signal problems. This feature provides a greater understanding of the issue.

In the early 1970s the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) generated more awareness, concern, and a need to control industrial noise (sound levels). This in turn created a need to advance technical knowledge on industrial product sound generation and to set sound standards on all types of equipment. However, the complexity of the subject […]
Jules DeBaecke, Richard Schunck, Bill Bradley

Special Report: AGMA Objectives

If you’re already a member of the AGMA, then you need to know about what the association is doing for you. If you haven’t yet joined, here’s why you should.

During the Fall Technical Meeting held in Orlando last October, members of the AGMA’s board of directors took time out from their primary concerns to discuss the association’s activities and goals in the coming year. Those attending included Stan Blenke, chairman of the association’s board of directors and executive vice president of Schafer Gear, Inc., […]
Jules DeBaecke, Richard Schunck, Bill Bradley

A Proven Process for Plastics

When plastic is the material, crowned molding can present a new solution to an old problem. Allow an industry leader to help you combat gear tooth misalignment.

It’s an old problem: the common condition of misaligned mating parallel-axis (spur and helical) gear tooth surfaces. The solution—new to molded plastic gears, but old in machined gear practice—is the modification of gear flanks by making them full thickness at mid-face width and tapered off to each face (see Figure 1). This modification, extending over […]
Glenn Ellis
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